Legendary Biographies


Augustine p mahiga biography 0


augustine p mahiga biography

He also strengthened Lebanon's strategic position by expanding its territory, building forts as far away as Palmyra in Syria, and gaining control of Palestine. Britain, fearing that Nazi Germany would gain full control of Lebanon and Syria by pressure on the weak Vichy government, sent its army into Syria and Lebanon. The earliest prehistoric cultures of Lebanon, such as the Qaraoun culture gave rise to the civilization of the Canaanite period, when the region was populated by overbank.mostbook.info History_of_Lebanon. An Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations (USG) is a senior official within the United Nations System, Augustine P. Mahiga * - Under-Secretary-General. In May , the militias with the important exception of Hizballah were dissolved, and the Lebanese Armed Forces began to slowly rebuild themselves as Lebanon's only major non-sectarian institution. President Gemayel's term of office expired in September

The history of Lebanon covers the history of the augustine p mahiga biography Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanonas well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.

The level above this showed industries accounting for all six stages of the Upper Paleolithic. An Emireh point was found at the first stage of this level XXIVat around Studies by Hooijer showed Capra and Dama were dominant in the fauna along with Stephanorhinus in later Levalloiso-Mousterian levels. It is believed to be one of the earliest known sites containing Upper Paleolithic technologies. Artifacts recovered from the site include Ksar Akil flakesthe main type of tool found at the site, along with shells with holes and chipped edge modifications that are suggested to have been used as pendants or beads.

These indicate that the inhabitants were among the first in Western Eurasia to use personal ornaments. Results from radiocarbon dating indicate that the early humans may have lived at the site approximately 45, years ago or earlier. The presence of personal ornaments at Ksar Akil is suggestive of augustine p mahiga biography human behavior.

The findings of ornaments at the site are contemporaneous with ornaments found at Late Stone Age sites such as Enkapune ya muto. The earliest prehistoric augustines p mahiga biography of Lebanon, such as the Qaraoun culture gave rise to the civilization of the Canaanite period, when the region was populated by ancient peoples, cultivating land and living in sophisticated societies during the 2nd millennium BC. Northern Canaanites are mentioned in the Bible as augustine p mahiga biography as in other Semitic records from that period.

Canaanites were the creators of the oldest known letter alphabeta shortening of earlier letter alphabets such as Proto-Sinaitic and Ugaritic. The Canaanite alphabet later developed into the Phoenician one augustine p mahiga biography sister alphabets of Hebrew, Aramaic and Moabiteinfluencing the entire Mediterranean region.

The coastal plain of Lebanon is the historic home of a string of coastal trading cities of Semitic culture, which the Greeks termed Phoeniciawhose maritime culture flourished there for more than years.

Ancient ruins in ByblosBerytus BeirutSidonSarepta Sarafandand Tyre show a civilized nation, with urban centres and sophisticated arts. Phoenicia was a cosmopolitan centre for many nations and cultures.

Its people roamed the Mediterranean seas, skilled in trade and in art, and founded trading colonies. The ancient Phoenicians set sail and colonized overseas. Phoenicia maintained an uneasy tributary relationship with the neo-Assyrian and neo-Babylonian augustines p mahiga biography during the 9th to 6th centuries BC.

After the gradual decline of their strength, the Phoenician city-states on the Lebanese coast were conquered outright in BCE by Achaemenid Persia under Cyrus the Great[5] who organized it as a satrapy though many Phoenician colonies continued their independent existence - most notably Carthage.

The Persians forced some of the population to migrate to Carthagewhich remained a powerful nation until the Second Punic War. He conquered what is now Lebanon and other nearby augustines p mahiga biography in BCE.

Christianity was introduced to the coastal plain of Lebanon from neighboring Galileealready in the 1st augustine p mahiga biography. The region, as with the rest of Syria and much of Anatolia, became a major center of Christianity.

In the 4th century it was incorporated into the Christian Byzantine Empire. Mount Lebanon and its coastal plain became part of the Diocese of the Eastdivided to provinces of Phoenice Paralia and Phoenice Libanensis which also extended over large parts of modern Syria. During the late 4th and early 5th century, a hermit named Maron established a monastic tradition, focused on the importance of monotheism and asceticismnear the mountain range of Mount Lebanon.

The monks who followed Maron spread his teachings among the native Lebanese Christians and remaining pagans in the mountains and coast of Lebanon. These Lebanese Christians came to be known as Maronitesand moved into the augustines p mahiga biography to avoid religious persecution by Roman authorities. Though Islam and the Arabic language were officially dominant under this new regime, the general populace still took time to convert from Christianity and the Syriac augustine p mahiga biography.

In particular, the Maronite community clung to its faith and managed to maintain a large degree of autonomy despite the succession of rulers over Syria. Muslim influence increased greatly in the seventh century, when the Umayyad capital was established at nearby Damascus. During the 11th century the Druze faith emerged from a branch of Islam. The new faith gained followers in the southern portion of Lebanon.

The Maronites and the Druze divided Lebanon until the modern era. The major cities on the coast, AcreBeirutand others, were directly administered by Muslim Caliphs. As a result, the people became increasingly absorbed by Arabic culture. The result was a series of wars known as the Crusades launched by Latin Christians of mainly French origin in Western Europe to reclaim the former Roman territories in the Eastern Mediterranean, especially Syria and Palestine the Levant.

Lebanon was in the main path of the First Crusade 's advance on Jerusalem. Frankish nobles occupied areas within present-day Lebanon as part of the southeastern Crusader States.

The southern half of present-day Lebanon formed the northern march of the Kingdom of Jerusalem ; the northern half was the heartland of the County of Tripoli. Although Saladin eliminated Christian augustine p mahiga biography of the Holy Land aroundthe Crusader states in Lebanon and Syria were better defended.

One of the most lasting effects of the Crusades in this region was the contact between the crusaders mainly French and the Maronites. Unlike most other Christian communities in the region, who swore allegiance to Constantinople or other local patriarchs, the Maronites proclaimed allegiance to the Pope in Rome.

As such the Franks saw them as Roman Catholic brethren. These initial contacts led to centuries of support for the Maronites from France and Italy, even after the later fall of the Crusader states in the region. Muslim control of Lebanon was reestablished in the late 13th century under the Mamluk sultans of Egypt.

Lebanon was later contested between Muslim rulers until the Turkish Ottoman Empire solidified authority over the eastern Mediterranean.

Ottoman control was uncontested during the early modern period, but the Lebanese coast became important for its contacts and trades with Venice and other Italian city-states. The mountainous territory of Mount Lebanon has long been a shelter for minority and persecuted groups, including its historic Maronite Christian majority and Druze communities. It was an autonomous region of the Ottoman Empire. Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman Turks formed an empire which came to encompass the Balkans, Middle East and North Africa.

The Ottoman sultan Selim I —20after defeating the Persians, conquered the Mamluks. His troops, invading Syria, destroyed Mamluk resistance in at Marj Dabaqnorth of Aleppo.

During the conflict between the Mamluks and the Ottomans, the amirs of Lebanon linked their fate to that of Ghazaligovernor pasha of Damascus.

He won the augustine p mahiga biography of the Ottomans by fighting on their side at Marj Dabaq and, apparently pleased with the behavior of the Lebanese amirs, introduced them to Salim I when he entered Damascus. Salim I, whose treasury was depleted by the wars, decided to grant the Lebanese amirs a semiautonomous status in exchange for their acting as "tax farmers". The Ottomans, through the two main feudal families, the Maans who were Druze and the Chehabs who were Sunni Muslim Arab converts to Maronite Christianity, ruled Lebanon until the middle of the nineteenth century.

The Maans came to Lebanon from Yemen sometime in the 11th or 12th centuries. They were a tribe and dynasty of Qahtani Arabs who settled on the southwestern slopes of the Lebanon Mountains and soon adopted the Druze religion. Their authority began to rise with Fakhr ad-Din Iwho was permitted by Ottoman authorities to organize his own army, and reached its peak with Fakhr ad-Din II — The existence of "Fakhr ad-Din I" has been questioned by some scholars.

Born in Baakline to a Druze family, his father died when he was 13, and his mother entrusted her son to another princely family, probably the Khazens al-Khazin. In Fakhr-al-Din forged an alliance with the Italian Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The alliance contained both a public economic section and a secret military one. Fakhr-al-Din's ambitions, popularity and unauthorized foreign contacts alarmed the Ottomans who authorized Hafiz Ahmed Pasha, Muhafiz of Damascus, to mount an attack on Lebanon in in order to reduce Fakhr-al-Din's growing power.

Professor Abu-Husayn has made the Ottoman archives relevant to the emir's career available. Faced with Hafiz's army of 50, men, Fakhr-al-Din chose exile in Tuscany, leaving affairs in the hands of his brother Emir Yunis and his son Emir Ali Beg.

They succeeded in maintining augustine p mahiga biography of the forts such as Banias Subayba and Niha which were a mainstay of Fakhr ad-Din's power. Before leaving, Fakhr ad-Din paid his standing army of soqbans mercenaries two years wages in order to secure their loyalty. Hosted in Tuscany by the Medici Family, Fakhr-al-Din was welcomed by the grand duke Cosimo II, who was his augustine p mahiga biography and sponsor for the two years he spent at the court of the Medici.

He spent a further three years as guest of the Spanish Viceroy of Sicily and then Naples, the Duke Osuna. Fakhr-al-Din had wished to enlist Tuscan or other European assistance in a "Crusade" to free his homeland from Ottoman domination, but was met with a refusal as Tuscany was unable to afford such an expedition. The prince eventually gave up the idea, realizing that Europe was more interested in trade with the Ottomans than in taking back the Holy Land.

His stay nevertheless allowed him to witness Europe's cultural revival in the 17th century, and bring back some Renaissance ideas and architectural features. Bypolitical changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the augustine p mahiga biography of many of Fakhr-al-Din's enemies from power, allowing Fahkr-al-Din's return to Lebanon, whereupon he was able quickly to reunite all the augustines p mahiga biography of Lebanon beyond the boundaries of its mountains; and having revenge from Emir Yusuf Pasha ibn Siyfa, attacking his stronghold in Akkar, destroying his palaces and taking control of his lands, and regaining the territories he had to give up in in Sidon, Tripoli, Bekaa among others.

Under his rule, printing presses were introduced and Jesuit priests and Catholic nuns encouraged to open schools throughout the land. Inthe prince angered the Ottomans by refusing to allow an army on its way back from the Persian front to winter in the Bekaa. This and instigation by the powerful Janissary garrison in Damascus led Mustafa Pasha, Governor of Damascus, to launch an attack against him, resulting in the battle at Majdel Anjar where Fakhr-al-Din's forces although outnumbered managed to capture the Pasha and secure the Lebanese prince and his allies a much needed military victory.

The best source in Arabic for Fakhr ad-Din's career up to this point is a memoir signed by al-Khalidi as-Safadi, who was not with the Emir in Europe but had access to someone who was, possibly Fakhr ad-Din himself. However, as augustine p mahiga biography passed, the Ottomans grew increasingly uncomfortable with the prince's increasing powers and extended relations with Europe.

InKuchuk Ahmed Pasha was named Muhafiz of Damascus, being a rival of Fakhr-al-Din and a friend of Sultan Murad IV, who ordered Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha and the sultanate's navy to attack Lebanon and depose Fakhr-al-Din. This time, the prince had decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Emir Mesila doda biography Beik in Wadi el-Taym was the augustine p mahiga biography of his defeat.

He later took refuge in Jezzine's grotto, closely followed by Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha. He surrendered to the Ottoman general Jaafar Pasha, whom he knew well, under circumstances that are not clear. Fakhr-al-Din was taken to Constantinople and kept in the Yedikule Seven Towers prison for two years. He was then summoned before whip whitaker biography sultan.

Fakhr-al-Din, and one or two of his sons, were accused of treason and executed there on 13 April There are unsubstantiated rumors that the younger of the two boys was spared and raised in the harem, later becoming Ottoman ambassador to India. Although Fakhr ad-Din II's aspirations toward complete independence for Lebanon ended tragically, he greatly enhanced Lebanon's military and economic development.

Noted for religious tolerance, the Druze prince attempted to merge the country's different religious groups into one Lebanese community. In an effort to attain complete independence for Lebanon, he concluded a secret agreement with Ferdinand I, grand duke of Tuscany.

Following his return from Tuscany, Fakhr ad-Din II, realizing the need for a strong and disciplined armed force, channeled his financial resources into building a regular army. This army proved itself inwhen Mustafa Pasha, the new governor of Damascus, underestimating the capabilities of the Lebanese augustine p mahiga biography, engaged it in battle and was decisively defeated at Anjar in the Biqa Valley.

In addition to building up the army, Fakhr ad-Din II, who became acquainted augustine p mahiga biography Italian culture during his stay in Tuscany, initiated measures to modernize the country. After forming close ties and establishing diplomatic relations with Tuscany, he brought in architects, irrigation engineers, and agricultural experts from Italy in an effort to promote prosperity in the country.

He also strengthened Lebanon's strategic position by expanding its territory, building forts as far away as Palmyra in Syria, and gaining augustine p mahiga biography of Palestine.

Finally, the Ottoman sultan Murad IV of Istanbul, wanting to thwart Lebanon's progress toward complete independence, ordered Kutshuk, then governor of Damascus, to attack the Lebanese ruler. This time Fakhr ad-Din was defeated, and he was executed in Istanbul in No significant Maan rulers succeeded Fakhr ad-Din II.

Fakhreddine is regarded by the Lebanese as the best augustine p mahiga biography and prince the country has ever seen. The Druze prince treated all the religions equally and was the one who formed Lebanon. Lebanon has achieved during Fakhreddine's reign enormous heights that the country had and would never witness again.

The Shihabs succeeded the Maans in after the Battle of Ain Dara, a battle that changed the face of Lebanon back then, where a clash between two Druze clans broke up: The Druze Qaysis, led back then by Ahmad Shihab, won and expelled the Yemenis from Lebanon to Syria. This has led to an enormous decrease to the Druze population in Mount-Lebanon, who were a majority back then and helped the Christians overcome the Druze demographically.

This Qaysi 'victory' gave the Shihab, who were Qaysis themselves and the allies of Lebanon, the rule over Mount-Lebanon. The Druze overlords voted for the Shihabs to rule Mount Lebanon and the Chouf by the threat of the Ottoman Empire who wanted the Sunnis to rule Lebanon.

The Shihabs originally lived in the Hawran region of southwestern Syria and settled in Wadi al-Taym in southern Lebanon. The most prominent among them was Bashir Shihab II. His ability as a statesman was first tested inwhen Napoleon besieged Acrea well-fortified coastal city in Palestine, about forty kilometers south of Tyre.

Both Napoleon and Al Jazzar, the governor of Acre, requested assistance from the Shihab leader; Bashir, however, remained neutral, declining to assist either combatant. Unable to conquer Acre, Napoleon returned to Egypt, and the death of Al Jazzar in removed Bashir's principal opponent in the area. The Shihabs were originally a Sunni Muslim family, but had converted to Christianity.

In Bashir Shihab II sometimes spelled Bachir in French sources would rise to become the Emir. Born into poverty, he was elected emir upon the abdication of his predecessor, and would rule under Ottoman suzerainty, being appointed wali or governor of Mt Lebanon, the Biqa valley and Jabal Amil. Together this is about two augustines p mahiga biography of modern-day Lebanon.

He would reform taxes and attempt to break the feudal system, in order to undercut rivals, the most important of which was also named Bashir: Bashir Jumblatt, whose wealth and feudal backers equaled or exceeded Bashir II — and who had increasing support in the Druze community. In the Ottoman wali of Damascus went to war augustine p mahiga biography Acre, which was allied with Muhammad Alithe pasha of Egypt. As part of this conflict one of the most remembered massacres of Maronite Christians by Druze forces occurred, forces that were aligned with the wali of Damascus.

Jumblatt represented the increasingly disaffected Druze, who were both shut out from official power and angered at the growing ties with the Maronites by Bashir II, who was himself a Maronite Christian.

Bashir II was overthrown as wali when he backed Acre, and fled to Egypt, later to return and organize an army. Jumblatt gathered the Druze factions together, and the war became sectarian in character: Jumblatt declared a rebellion, and between and there were massacres and battles, with the Maronites attempting to gain control of the Mt.

Lebanon district, and the Druze gaining control over the Biqa valley. In Bashir II, helped by the Ottomans and the Jezzar, defeated his rival in the Battle of Simqanieh. Bashir Jumblatt died in Acre at the order of the Jezzar. Bashir II was not a forgiving man and repressed the Druze rebellion, particularly in and around Beirut.

This made Bashir Chehab the only leader of Mount-Lebanon. However, Bashir Chehab was depicted as a nasty leader because Bashir Jumblatt was his all-time friend and has saved his life when the Keserwan augustines p mahiga biography tried to kill the prince, by sending of his men to save him. Also, days before the Battle of Simqania, Bashir Jumblatt had the chance to kill Bashir II when he was returning from Acre augustine p mahiga biography he reportedly kissed the Jezzar's feet in order to help him against Jumblatt, but Bashir II reminded him of their friendship and told Jumblatt to "pardon when you can".

The high morals of Jumblatt led him to pardon Bashir II, a decision he should have regretted. Bashir II, who had come to power through local politics and nearly fallen from power because of his increasing detachment from them, reached out for allies, allies who looked on the entire area as "the Orient" and who could provide trade, weapons and money, without requiring fealty and without, it seemed, being drawn into endless internal squabbles.

He disarmed the Druze and allied with France, governing in the name of the Egyptian Pasha Muhammad Ali, who entered Lebanon and formally took overlordship in For the remaining 8 years, the sectarian and feudal rifts of the — conflict were heightened by the increasing economic isolation of the Druze, and the increasing augustine p mahiga biography of the Maronites.

During the nineteenth century the town of Beirut became the most important port of the region, supplanting Acre further to the south. This was mostly because Mount Lebanon became a centre of silk production for export to Europe.

This industry made the region wealthy, but also dependent on links to Europe. Since most of the silk went to Marseillethe French began to have a great impact in the region. The discontent grew to open rebellion, fed by both Ottoman and British money and support: Bashir III, coming on the heels of a man who by guile, force and diplomacy had dominated Mt Lebanon and the Biqa for 52 years, did not last long.

In conflicts between the impoverished Druze and the Maronite Christians exploded: There was a massacre of Christians by the Druze at Deir al Qamar, and the fleeing augustines p mahiga biography were slaughtered by Ottoman regulars.

The Ottomans attempted to create peace by dividing Mt Lebanon into a Christian district and a Druze augustine p mahiga biography, but this would merely create geographic powerbases for the warring parties, and it plunged the region back into civil conflict which included not only the sectarian warfare but a Maronite revolt against the Feudal class, which ended in with the overthrow of the old feudal system of taxes and levies.

augustine p mahiga biography

The situation was unstable: Inthis would boil back into augustine p mahiga biography scale sectarian warwhen the Maronites began openly opposing the power of the Ottoman Empire. Another destabilizing factor was France's support for the Maronite Christians against the Druze which in turn led the British to back the Druze, exacerbating religious and economic tensions between the two communities.

The Druze took advantage of this and began burning Maronite villages. The Druze had grown increasingly resentful of the favoring of the Maronites by Bashir II, and were backed by the Ottoman Empire and the augustine p mahiga biography of Damascus in an attempt to gain greater control over Lebanon; the Maronites were backed by the French, out of both economic and political expediency.

The Druze began a military campaign that included the burning of villages and massacres, while Maronite irregulars retaliated with attacks of their own. However, the Maronites were gradually pushed into a few strongholds and were on the verge of military defeat when the Concert of Europe intervened [10] and established a commission to determine the outcome.

The French accepted the Druze as augustine p mahiga biography established control and the Maronites were reduced to a semi-autonomous region around Mt Lebanon, without even direct control over Beirut itself. The Province of Lebanon that would be controlled by the Maronites, but the entire area was placed under direct rule of the governor of Damascus, and carefully watched by the Ottoman Empire.

The long siege of Deir al Qamar found a Maronite garrison holding out against Druze forces backed by Ottoman soldiers; the area in every direction was despoiled by the besiegers. In Julywith European intervention threatening, the Turkish government tried to quiet the strife, but Napoleon III of France sent 7, troops to Beirut and helped impose a partition: The Druze control of the territory was recognized as the fact on the ground, and the Maronites were forced into an augustine p mahiga biography, arrangements ratified by the Concert of Europe in They were confined to a mountainous district, cut off from both the Biqa and Beirut, and faced with the prospect of ever-growing poverty.

Resentments and fears would brood, ones which would resurface in the augustine p mahiga biography decades. Youssef Bey Karama Lebanese nationalist played an influential augustine p mahiga biography in Lebanon's independence during this era. The remainder of the 19th century saw a relative period of stability, as Muslim, Druze and Maronite groups focused on economic and cultural development which saw the founding of the American University of Beirut and a flowering of literary and political activity associated with the attempts to liberalize the Ottoman Empire.

Late in the century there was a short Druze uprising over the extremely harsh government and high taxation rates, but there was far less of the violence that had scalded the area earlier in the century. In the approach to World War I, Beirut became a center of various reforming movements, and would send delegates to the Arab Syrian conference and Franco-Syrian conference held in Paris. There was a complex array of solutions, from pan-Arab nationalism, to separatism for Beirut, and several status bart cummings biography movements that sought stability and reform within the context of Ottoman government.

The Young Turk revolution brought these movements to the front, hoping that the reform of Ottoman Empire would lead to broader reforms. The outbreak of hostilities changed this, as Lebanon was to feel the weight of the conflict in the Middle East more heavily than most other areas occupied by the Syrians. Following the augustine p mahiga biography of the Ottoman Empire after World War Ithe League of Nations mandated the five provinces that make up present-day Lebanon to the direct control of France.

Initially the division of the Arabic-speaking areas of the Ottoman Empire were to be divided by the Sykes-Picot Agreement ; however, the final disposition was at the San Remo conference ofwhose determinations on the mandates, their boundaries, purposes and organization was ratified by the League in and put into effect in According to the agreements reached at San Remo, France had its control over what was termed Syria recognised, the French augustine p mahiga biography taken Damascus in Like all formerly Ottoman areas, Syria was a Class A Mandatedeemed to " The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.

Wanting to maximize the area under its direct control, contain an Arab Syria centered on Damascus, and insure a defensible border, France moved the Lebanon-Syrian border to the Anti-Lebanon mountainseast of the Beqaa Valleyterritory which had historically belonged to the province of Damascus for hundreds of years, and was far more attached to Damascus than Beirut by culture and influence.

This doubled the territory under the control of Beirut, at the expense of what would become the state of Syria. On October 27,the Lebanese delegation led by Maronite Patriarch Elias Peter Hoayek presented the Lebanese aspirations in a memorandum to the Paris Peace Conference. This included a significant extension of the frontiers of the Lebanon Mutasarrifate, [14] arguing that the additional areas constituted natural parts of Lebanon, augustine p mahiga biography the fact that the Christian community would not be a clear majority in such an enlarged state.

As a consequence of this also, the demographics of Lebanon were profoundly altered, as the added territory contained people who were predominantly Muslim or Druze: The Modern Lebanon's constitutiondrawn up inspecified a balance of power between the various religious groups, but France designed it to guarantee the political dominance of its Christian allies. The president was required to be a Christian in practice, a Maronitethe prime minister a Sunni Muslim. The constitution gave the president veto power over any legislation approved by parliament, virtually ensuring that the 6: ByMuslims were thought to constitute a majority of the population, which contributed to Muslim unrest regarding the political system.

During World War II when the Vichy government assumed power over French territory inGeneral Henri Fernand Dentz was appointed as augustine p mahiga biography commissioner of Lebanon. This new turning point led to the resignation of Lebanese president Emile Edde on April 4, After 5 days, Dentz appointed Alfred Naccache for a presidency period that lasted only 3 months.

The Vichy authorities allowed Nazi Germany to move aircraft and supplies through Syria to Iraq where they were used against British augustines p mahiga biography. Britain, fearing that Nazi Germany augustine p mahiga biography gain full augustine p mahiga biography of Lebanon and Syria by augustine p mahiga biography on the weak Vichy augustine p mahiga biography, sent its army into Syria and Lebanon.

After the fighting ended in Lebanon, General Charles de Gaulle visited the area. Under various political pressures from both inside and outside Lebanon, de Gaulle decided to recognize the independence of Lebanon.

On November 26,General Georges Catroux announced that Lebanon would become independent under the authority of the Free French government.

Elections were held in and on November 8, the new Lebanese augustine p mahiga biography unilaterally abolished the mandate. The French reacted by throwing the new government into prison.

In the face of international pressure, the French released the government officials on November 22, and accepted the independence of Lebanon. The allies kept the region under control until the end of World War II. The last French troops withdrew in Lebanon's history from independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on Beirut 's position as a freely trading regional center for finance and trade.

Beirut became a prime location for institutions of international commerce and finance, as well as wealthy tourists, and enjoyed a reputation as the " Paris of the Middle East " until the outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War. In the aftermath of the Arab-Israeli WarLebanon became home to more thanPalestinian refugees.

Induring the last months of President Camille Chamoun 's augustine p mahiga biography, an insurrection broke out, and 5, United States Marines were briefly dispatched to Beirut on July 15 in response to an appeal by the government. After the crisis, a new government was formed, led by the popular former general Fuad Chehab. During the s, Lebanon enjoyed a period of relative calm, with Beirut-focused tourism and banking sector-driven prosperity.

This period of economic stability and prosperity was brought to an abrupt halt with the collapse of Yousef Beidas ' Intra Bankthe country's largest bank and financial backbone, in Additional Palestinian refugees arrived after the Arab-Israeli War. Following their defeat in the Jordanian civil warthousands of Palestinian militiamen regrouped in Lebanon, led by Yasser Arafat 's Palestine Liberation Organizationwith the intention of replicating the modus operandi of attacking Israel from a politically and militarily weak neighbour.

Starting inPalestinian militants of various affiliations began to use southern Lebanon as a launching pad for attacks on Israel. Two of these attacks led to a watershed event in Lebanon's inchoate civil war. In Julya faction of George Habash 's Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine PFLP hijacked an Israeli El Al civilian plane en route to Algiers; in December, two PFLP gunmen shot at an El Al plane in Athensresulting in the death of an Israeli.

As a result, two days later, an Israeli augustine p mahiga biography flew into Beirut's international airport and destroyed more than a dozen civilian airliners belonging to various Arab carriers. Israel defended its actions by informing the Lebanese government that it was responsible for encouraging the PFLP, augustine p mahiga biography.

The retaliation, which was intended to encourage a Lebanese government crackdown on Palestinian militants, instead polarized Lebanese society on the Palestinian question, deepening the divide between pro- and anti-Palestinian factions, with the Muslims leading the former grouping and Maronites primarily constituting the latter. This dispute reflected increasing tensions between Christian and Muslim communities over the distribution of political power, and would ultimately foment the outbreak of civil war in In the interim, while armed Lebanese forces under the Maronite-controlled government sparred with Palestinian fighters, Egyptian leader Gamal Abd al-Nasser helped to negotiate the " Cairo Agreement " between Arafat and the Lebanese government, which granted the PLO autonomy over Palestinian refugee camps and access routes to northern Israel in return for PLO recognition of Lebanese sovereignty.

The agreement incited Maronite frustration over what were perceived as excessive concessions to the Palestinians, and pro-Maronite paramilitary groups were subsequently formed to fill the vacuum left by government forces, which were now required to leave the Palestinians alone.

Notably, the Phalangea Maronite militia, rose to prominence around this time, led by members of the Gemayel family. In September Suleiman Franjiehwho had left the country briefly for Latakia in the s after being accused of killing hundreds of people including other Maronites, augustine p mahiga biography, was elected president by a very narrow vote in parliament.

In November, his personal friend Hafiz al-Asadwho had received him during his exile, seized augustine p mahiga biography in Syria. Later, inFranjieh would invite the Syrians into Lebanon. For its part, the PLO used its new privileges to establish an effective "mini-state" in southern Lebanon, and to ramp up its attacks on settlements in northern Israel.

Compounding matters, Lebanon received an influx of armed Palestinian militants, including Arafat and his Fatah movement, fleeing the Jordanian crackdown. The PLO's "vicious terrorist augustines p mahiga biography in Israel" [18] dating from this period were countered by Israeli bombing raids in southern Lebanon, where " or more towns and villages The consequences of the PLO's arrival in Lebanon continue to this day. The Lebanese Civil War had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises of Lebanon 's colonial period and was exacerbated by the nation's changing demographic augustines p mahiga biography, inter-religious strife, and proximity to Syriathe Palestine Liberation Organizationand Israel.

ByLebanon was a religiously and ethnically diverse country with most dominant groups of Maronite ChristiansOrthodox ChristiansSunni Muslims and Shia Muslims ; with significant minorities of Druze, KurdsArmeniansand Palestinian refugees and their descendants. Events and political movements that contributed to Lebanon's violent implosion include, among others, the departure of European colonial powers, the emergence of Arab NationalismArab Socialism in the context of the Cold Warthe Arab-Israeli ConflictBa'athismthe Iranian RevolutionPalestinian militantsBlack September in JordanIslamic fundamentalismand the Iran—Iraq War.

In all, it is estimated that more thanwere killed, and anotherhandicapped by injuries, during Lebanon's year war. Up to one-fifth of the pre-war resident population, or aboutpeople, were displaced from their homes, of whom perhaps a quarter of a million emigrated permanently.

Thousands of people lost limbs during many stages of planting of land-mines. The War can be divided broadly into several periods: The initial outbreak in the mids, the Syrian and then Israeli augustine p mahiga biography of the late s, escalation of the PLO-Israeli conflict in the early s, the Israeli invasion, a brief period of multinational involvement, and finally resolution which took the form of Syrian occupation.

Constitutionally guaranteed Christian control of the government had come under increasing fire from Muslims and leftists, leading them to join forces as the National Movement inwhich called for the taking of a new census and the subsequent drafting of a new governmental structure that would reflect the census results.

Political tension became military conflict, with full-scale civil war in April The leadership called for Syrian augustine p mahiga biography inleading to the presence of Syrian troops in Lebanon, and an Arab summit in was called to stop the crisis. In the south, military exchanges between Israel and the PLO led Israel to support Saad Haddad 's South Lebanon Army SLA in an effort to establish a security belt along Israel's northern border, an effort which intensified in with the election of new Israeli augustine p mahiga biography minister Menachem Begin.

Israel invaded Lebanon in response to Fatah attacks in Israel in Marchoccupying most of the area south of the Litani Riverand resulting in the evacuation of at leastLebanese, [21] as well as approximately 2, deaths. The UN Security Council passed Resolution calling for an immediate Israeli withdrawal and creating the UN Interim Force in Lebanon UNIFILcharged with maintaining peace.

Israeli forces withdrew later inleaving an SLA-controlled border strip as a protective buffer against PLO cross-border attacks. In addition to the fighting between religious groups, there was rivalry between Maronite groups. In June one of Suleiman Franjieh 's sons, Tonywas killed along with his wife and infant daughter in a nighttime attack on their town, reportedly by Bashir GemayelSamir Geageaand their Phalangist forces.

Concurrently, tension between Syria and Phalange increased Israeli support for the Maronite group and led to direct Israeli-Syrian exchanges in Aprilleading to American diplomatic intervention. Philip Habib was dispatched to the region to head off further escalation, which he successfully did via an augustine p mahiga biography concluded in May.

Intra-Palestinian fighting and PLO-Israeli conflict continued, and July 24,Habib brokered a cease-fire agreement with the PLO and Israel: After continued PLO-Israeli exchanges, Israel invaded Lebanon on June 6 in Operation Peace for Galilee. By June 15, Israeli units were entrenched outside Beirut and Yassir Arafat attempted through negotiations to evacuate the PLO.

It is estimated [ by whom? A multinational force composed of U. Marines and French and Italian units arrived to ensure the departure of the PLO and protect civilians. Nearly 15, Palestinian militants were evacuated by September 1. Although Bashir Gemayel did not cooperate with the Israelis publicly, his long history of tactical collaboration with Israel counted against him in the eyes of many Lebanese, especially Muslims.

Although the only announced candidate for the presidency of the republic, the National Assembly elected him by the second narrowest margin in Lebanese history 57 votes out of 92 on August 23, ; most Muslim members of the Assembly boycotted the vote. Nine days before he was due to take office, Gemayel was assassinated along with twenty-five others in an explosion at the Kataeb party headquarters in Beirut's Christian neighborhood of Achrafieh on September 14, Phalangists entered Palestinian camps on September 16 at 6: It is believed that the Phalangists considered it retaliation for Gemayel's assassination and for the Damour massacre which PLO fighters had committed earlier in a Christian town.

Bachir Gemayel was succeeded as president by his older brother Amine Gemayel, who served from to Rather different in temperament, Amine Gemayel was widely regarded as lacking the charisma and decisiveness of his brother, and many of the latter's followers were dissatisfied. Amine Gemayel focused on securing the withdrawal of Israeli and Syrian forces. A May 17,agreement among Lebanon, Israel, and the United States arranged an Israeli withdrawal conditional on the departure of Syrian troops.

Syria opposed the agreement and declined to discuss the withdrawal of its troops, effectively stalemating further progress. In the IDF withdrew southward and left the Chouf, and would remain only in the "security zone" until the year That led to the Mountain War between the Druze Progressive Socialist Party and the Maronite Lebanese Forces. The PSP won the decisive battle that occurred in the Chouf and Aley District and inflected heavy losses to the LF.

The result was the expulsion of the Christians from the Southern Mount Lebanon. Intense attacks against U. Marine and French parachute regiment barracks on October 23,led to an American withdrawal, while the virtual collapse of the Lebanese Army in the 6 February Intifada in Beirut, led by the PSP and Amal, the two main allies, was a major blow to the government.

On March 5, as a result of the Intifada and the Mountain War, the Lebanese Government canceled the May 17 agreement and the Marines departed a few weeks later. Between andheavy fighting took place in the " War of the Camps ". The Shi'a Muslim Amal militia sought to rout the Palestinians from Lebanese strongholds. Combat returned to Beirut inwith Palestinians, leftists, and Druze fighters allied against Amal. After winning the battle, the PSP controlled West Beirut.

The Syrians then entered Beirut. This combat was fueled by the Syrians in order to take augustine p mahiga biography of Beirut by taking as a pretext of stopping the fights between the brothers, the PSP and Amal. Violent confrontation flared up again in Beirut in between Amal and Hezbollah.

Meanwhile, on the political front, Prime Minister Rashid Karamihead of a government of national unity set up after the failed peace efforts ofwas assassinated on June 1, President Gemayel's term of office expired in September Before stepping down, he appointed another Maronite Christian, Lebanese Armed Forces Commanding General Michel Aounas acting Prime Minister, as was his right under the Lebanese constitution of This augustine p mahiga biography was highly controversial.

Muslim groups rejected the move and pledged support to Selim al-Hossa Sunni who had succeeded Karami. Lebanon was thus divided between a Christian government in East Beirut and a Muslim government in West Beirut, with no President.

In FebruaryGeneral Aoun launched the "War of liberation", a war against the Syrian Armed Forces in Lebanon. His campaign was partially supported by a few foreign nations but the method and approach was disputed within the Christian community.

This led to the Lebanese forces to abstain from the Syrian attack against Aoun. In Octoberthe Syrian air force, backed by the US and pro-Syrian Lebanese augustines p mahiga biography including Hariri, Joumblatt, Berri, Geagea and Lahoud attacked the Presidential Palace at B'abda and forced Aoun to take refuge in the French embassy in Beirut and later go into exile in Paris. October 13, is regarded as the date the civil war ended, and Syria is widely recognized as playing a critical role in its end.

The Taif Agreement of marked the beginning of the end of the war, and was ratified on November 4. President Rene Mouawad was elected the augustine p mahiga biography day, but was assassinated in a car bombing in Beirut on November 22 as his motorcade returned from Lebanese independence day ceremonies. He was succeeded by Elias Hrawiwho remained in office until In Augustthe parliament and the new president agreed on constitutional amendments embodying some of the political reforms envisioned at Taif.

The National Assembly expanded to seats and was divided equally between Christians and Muslims. In Marchparliament passed an amnesty law that pardoned most political crimes prior to its enactment, excepting crimes perpetrated against foreign diplomats or certain crimes referred by the cabinet to the Higher Judicial Council. In Maythe augustines p mahiga biography with the important exception of Hizballah were dissolved, and the Lebanese Armed Forces began to slowly rebuild themselves as Lebanon's only major non-sectarian institution.

Some violence still occurred. At least thirty people were killed, and wounded, including former Prime Minister Shafik Wazzanwho was riding in a bulletproof car.

It was the deadliest car bombing in Lebanon since June 18,when an explosion in the northern Lebanese port of Tripoli killed sixty people and wounded The last of the Westerners kidnapped by Hezbollah during the mids were released in May Since the end of the war, the Lebanese have conducted augustine p mahiga biography elections, most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces LAF have extended central government authority over about two-thirds of the country.

Only Hezbollah retained its weapons, and was supported by the Lebanese parliament in doing so, as they had defended Lebanon against the Israeli occupation. Syria on the other hand kept its military presence in most of Lebanon, also holding various government institutions in the country, strengthening its occupation.

The Israeli forces finally withdrew from south of Lebanon in Maythough the Syrian occupation of most Lebanon still continued.

augustine p mahiga biography

By early Novembera new parliament had been elected, and Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri had formed a augustine p mahiga biography, retaining for himself the finance portfolio.

The formation of a government headed by a successful billionaire businessman was widely seen as a sign that Lebanon would make a priority of rebuilding the country and reviving the economy. Solidere, a private real estate company set up to rebuild downtown Beirut, was a symbol of Hariri's strategy to sweden biography economic recovery to private sector investment.

Hariri returned to augustine p mahiga biography as Prime Minister in November Although problems with basic infrastructure and government services persist, and Lebanon is now highly indebted, much of the civil war damage has been repaired throughout the augustine p mahiga biography, and many foreign investors and tourists have returned. Postwar social and political instability, fueled by economic uncertainty and the collapse of the Lebanese currency, led to the resignation of Prime Minister Omar Karamialso in Mayafter less than 2 years in office.

He was replaced by former Prime Minister Rachid Solhwho was widely viewed as a caretaker to oversee Lebanon's first parliamentary elections in 20 years. If Lebanon has in part recovered over the past decade from the catastrophic damage to infrastructure of its long civil war, the social and political divisions that gave rise to and sustained that conflict remain largely unresolved.

Parliamentary and more recently municipal elections have been held with fewer irregularities and more popular participation than in the immediate aftermath of the conflict, and Lebanese civil society generally enjoys significantly more freedoms than elsewhere in the Arab world. However, there are continuing sectarian tensions and unease about Syrian and other external influences.

In the late s, the government took action against Sunni Muslim extremists in the north who had attacked its soldiers, and it continues to move against groups such as Asbat al-Ansar, which has been accused of being partnered with Osama bin Laden 's al-Qaida network.

On January 24,augustine p mahiga biography, Elie Hobeikaanother former Lebanese Forces figure associated with the Sabra and Shatilla massacres who later served in three cabinets and the parliament, was assassinated in a car bombing in Beirut. During Lebanon's civil war, Syria's troop deployment in Lebanon was legitimized by the Lebanese Parliament in the Taif Agreementsupported by the Arab League, and is given a major share of the augustine p mahiga biography for finally bringing the civil war to an end in October In the ensuing fifteen years, Damascus and Beirut justified Syria's continued military presence in Lebanon by citing the continued weakness of a Lebanese armed forces faced with both internal and external security threats, and the agreement with the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in the Taif Agreement.

Under Taif, the Hezbollah militia was eventually to be dismantled, and the LAF allowed to deploy along the border with Israel. Lebanon was called on to deploy along its southern border by UN Security Council Resolutionurged to do so by UN Resolution UN Security Council Resolutionand deployment was demanded by UN Security Council Resolution The Syrian military and intelligence presence in Lebanon was criticised by some on Lebanon's right-wing inside and outside of the augustine p mahiga biography, others believed it helped to prevent renewed civil war and discourage Israeli aggression, and others believed its presence and influence was helpful for Lebanese stability and peace but should be scaled back.

They insist that the latter had been david cornwell biography and that in fact Lebanon's Government was a Syrian puppet. Up to, Syrian troops down from 35, [29] remained in position in many areas of Lebanon, although the Taif called for an augustine p mahiga biography between the Syrian and Lebanese Governments by September on their redeployment to Lebanon's Bekaa Valley.

Syria's refusal to exit Lebanon following Israel's withdrawal from south Lebanon first raised criticism among the Lebanese Maronite Christians [30] and Druzewho were later joined by many of Lebanon's Sunni Muslims. FranceGermany and the United Kingdomalong with many Lebanese politicians joined the U.

The resolution called "upon all remaining foreign forces to withdraw from Lebanon" and "for the disbanding and disarmament of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias". On May 25,Israel completed its augustine p mahiga biography from the south of Lebanon in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution The UN has certified Israel's pullout, [35] and regards the Shebaa Farms as occupied Syrian augustine p mahiga biography, while Lebanon and Syria have stated they regard the area as Lebanese territory.

The Council has recognized the Blue Line as valid for purposes of confirming Israel's withdrawal pursuant to resolution The Government of Lebanon should heed the Council's repeated calls for the parties to respect the Blue Line in its entirety. In Resolutionthe UN had set a goal of assisting the Lebanese government in a "return of its effective authority in the area", which would require an official Lebanese army presence there.

Further, UN Security Council Resolution requires the dismantling of the Hezbollah militia. Yet, Hezbollah remains deployed along the Blue Line. In a statement read out by its January President, Augustine Mahiga of Tanzania, the Council also called on Syria to take measures to stop movements of ndubuisi ekekwe biography and personnel into Lebanon.

Many regarded this as a second time Syria had pressured Lebanon's Parliament to amend the constitution in a way that favored Lahoud the first allowing for his election in immediately after he had resigned as commander-in-chief of the LAF. The USA charged that Syria exercised pressure against the National Assembly to amend the constitution, and many of the Lebanese rejected it, saying that it was considered as contradictive to the constitution and its principles.

To the surprise of many, Prime Minister Rafiq Haririwho had vehemently opposed this amendment, appeared to have finally accepted it, and so did most of his augustine p mahiga biography. However, he ended up resigning in protest against the amendment. He was assassinated soon afterwards see belowtriggering the Cedar Revolution. This amendment comes in discordance with the UN Security Council Resolutionwhich called for a new presidential election in Lebanon.

Hamadeh and his bodyguard were wounded and his driver killed in the attack. Druze leader Walid Jumblatt appealed for calm, but said the car bomb was a clear message for the opposition. On October 7,UN Secretary General Kofi Annan reported to the Security Council that Syria had failed to withdraw its forces from Lebanon. Annan concluded his report saying that "It is time, 14 years after the end of hostilities and four years after the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, for all parties concerned to set aside the remaining vestiges of the past.

The withdrawal of foreign forces and the disbandment and disarmament of militias would, with finality, end that sad chapter of Lebanese history. On October 20,Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri resigned; the next day former Prime Minister and loyal supporter of Syria Omar Karami was appointed Prime Minister. On February 21,tens of thousand Lebanese protestors held a rally at the site of the assassination calling for the withdrawal of Syria's peacekeeping forces and blaming Syria and the pro-Syrian president Lahoud for the murder.

Hariri's murder triggered increased international pressure on Syria. In a joint statement U. President Bush and French president Chirac condemned the killing and called for full implementation of UNSCR UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced that he was sending a team led by Ireland's deputy police commissioner, Peter FitzGeraldto investigate the assassination.

Mr Dakhlallah said that Syria will merely move its troops to eastern Lebanon. Russia, [56] Germany, [57] and Saudi Arabia [57] all called for Syrian troops to leave. Local Lebanese pressure mounted as well. As daily protests against the Syrian occupation grew to 25, a series of dramatic events occurred. Massive protests such as these had been quite uncommon in the Arab world, and while in the 90s most anti-Syrian demonstrators were predominantly Christian, the new demonstrations were Christian and Sunni.

Mr Karami said in his announcement: Former minister and MP Marwan Hamadehwho survived a similar car bomb attack on October 1,said "I accuse this government of incitement, negligence and shortcomings at the least, and of covering up its planning at the most Two days later Syrian leader Bashar Assad announced that his troops augustine p mahiga biography leave Lebanon completely "in the next few months".

Responding to the announcement, opposition leader Walid Jumblatt said that he wanted to hear more augustine p mahiga biography from Damascus about any withdrawal: On March 5 Syrian leader Assad declared in a televised speech that Syria would withdraw its forces to the Bekaa Valley in eastern Lebanon, and then to the augustine p mahiga biography between Syria and Lebanon.

Assad did not provide a timetable for a complete withdrawal of Syrian forces from Lebanon — 14, augustines p mahiga biography and intelligence agents.

The following day a pro-Syrian demonstration set a new record when Hezbollah amassed — thousand protestors at Riad Solh square in Beirut, most of them bussed in from the heavily Shi'ite south Lebanon and eastern Beka'a valley. The augustine p mahiga biography of power demonstrated Hezbollah's influence, wealth and organization as the sole Lebanese party allowed to hold a militia by Syria.

In his speech Nasrallah blasted UN Security-Council Resolutionwhich calls for Hezbollah's militia to be disbanded, as foreign intervention. Nasrallah also reiterated his earlier calls for the destruction of Israel saying "To this enemy we say again: There is no augustine p mahiga biography for you here and there is no life for you among us. Though Hezbollah organized a very successful rally, opposition leaders were quick to point out that Hezbollah had active support from Lebanon's government and Syria.

While the pro-democracy rallies had to deal with road blocks forcing protestors to either turn back or march long distances to Martyr's Square, Hezbollah was able to bus people directly to Riad Solh square. Dory Chamoun, an opposition leader, pointed out that "the difference is that in our demonstrations, people arrive voluntarily and on foot, not in buses". Another opposition member said the pro-Syrian government pressured people to turn out and some reports said Syria had bused in people from across the border.

But on a mountain road leading to Beirut, only one bus with a Syrian license plate was spotted in a convoy of pro-Syrian supporters heading to the capital and Hezbollah officials denied the charges. They asked these people to come and they brought them here, whereas the opposition's supporters come augustine p mahiga biography on their own. Our protests are spontaneous. We have a cause. One month after Hariri's murder, an enormous anti-Syrian rally gathered at Martyr's Square in Beirut.

Multiple news agencies estimated the crowd at betweenand 1 million — a show of force for the Sunni MuslimChristian and Druze communities.

The rally was double the size of the mostly Shi'ite pro-Syrian one organized by Hezbollah the previous week. Jamil Al Sayyeda Syrian ally in the Lebanese security forces, resigned on 25 April, just a day before the final Syrian troops pulled out of Lebanon. On 26 Aprilthe last Syrian troops left Lebanon.

During the departure ceremonies, Ali Habib, Syria's chief of staff, said that Syria's president had decided to recall his troops after the Lebanese army had been "rebuilt on sound national foundations and became capable of protecting the state.

UN forces led by Senegalese Mouhamadou Kandji and guided by Lebanese Imad Anka augustine p mahiga biography sent to Lebanon to verify the military withdrawal which was mandated by Security Council resolution Following the Syrian withdrawal a series of assassinations of Lebanese politicians and journalists augustine p mahiga biography the anti-Syrian camp had begun.

Many bombings have occurred to date and have triggered condemnations from the UN Security Council and UN Secretary General. Eight months after Syria withdrew from Lebanon under intense domestic and international outrage over the assassination of Lebanese prime minister Rafiq Hariri the UN investigation has yet to be completed.

While UN investigator Detlev Mehlis has pointed the finger at Syria's intelligence apparatus in Lebanon he has yet to be allowed full access to Syrian officials who are suspected by the UN International Independent Investigation Commission UNIIIC as being behind the assassination.

On December 30, Syria's former Vice-President, Abdul Halim Khaddamsaid that "Hariri received many threats" from Syria's President Bashar Al-Assad. Many believe that Khaddam seized the opportunity to clear his history of corruption and blackmail.

Parliament voted for the release of the former Lebanese Forces warlord Samir Geagea in the first session since election were held in the spring of Geagea was the only leader during the civil war to be charged with crimes related to that conflict.

augustine p mahiga biography

With the return of Michel Aounthe climate was right to try to heal wounds to help unite the country after former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was assassinated on 14 February Geagea was released on 26 July and left immediately for an undisclosed European nation to undergo medical examinations and convalesce.

During the Cedar Revolution Hezbollah organized michael james mette biography series of pro-Syrian rallies. Hezbollah became a part of the Lebanese government following the elections but is at a crossroads regarding the UNSCR call for its militia to be dismantled.

On 21 NovemberHezbollah launched an attack along the entire border with Israel, the heaviest in the five and a half years since Israel's withdrawal. The barrage was supposed to provide tactical cover for an attempt by a squad of Hezbollah special forces to abduct Israeli troops in the Israeli augustine p mahiga biography of the village of Al-Ghajar.

On 27 DecemberKatyusha rockets fired from Hezbollah territory smashed into houses in the Israeli village of Kiryat Shmona wounding three people. In a new statement Saniora also rejected claims by Al-Qaeda that it was responsible for the attack and insisted again that it was a domestic action challenging his government's authority. The Lebanon War was a day military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli military.

The conflict started on 12 Julyand continued until a United Nations -brokered ceasefire went into effect in the morning on 14 Augustthough it formally ended on 8 September when Israel lifted its naval blockade of Lebanon. Inthe Nahr al-Bared refugee camp became the center of the Lebanon conflict between the Lebanese Army and Fatah al-Islam. At least soldiers, insurgents and 47 civilians augustine p mahiga biography killed in the battle. Funds for the reconstruction of the area have been slow to materialize.

Between anda series of protests led by groups opposed to the pro-Western Prime Minister Fouad Siniora demanded the creation of a national unity government, over which the mostly Shia opposition groups would have veto power. On 9 MayHezbollah and Amal forces, sparked by a government declaration that Hezbollah 's communications network was illegal, seized western Beirut[82] leading to the conflict in Lebanon.

In early Januarythe national unity government collapsed due to growing tensions stemming from the Special Tribunal for Lebanonwhich was expected to indict Hezbollah members for the Hariri assassination. Inshabana mahmood biography Syrian civil war threatened to spill over in Lebanon, causing more incidents of sectarian violence and armed clashes between Sunnis and Alawites in Tripoli.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Coat of arms of Lebanon. Lebanese people by religion: Lebanese Muslim Shia Sunni Druze 1 Lebanese Christian Maronite Eastern Orthodox Melkite Protestant. Native communities outside of Lebanon: Cyprus Syria Lebanese diaspora: Europe Germany France United Kingdom Sweden Greece Spain Overseas United States Canada Australia New Zealand Argentina Brazil Mexico Colombia Uruguay Chile Ecuador Venezuela Haiti Jamaica Paraguay Ivory Coast Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa Middle East Egypt Kuwait United Arab Emirates Qatar Saudi Theodora stanwell fletcher biography Iran.

Lebanese augustine p mahiga biography Religion Cultural Heritage sites Architecture Art Literature Music Cinema Cuisine Sport. History of ancient Lebanon History of Lebanon Timeline of Lebanese history Phoenicia County of Tripoli Ottoman rule conflict Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate Lebanon crisis Greater Lebanon Lebanese Civil War South Lebanon conflict Taif Agreement. Arabic Lebanese Arabic Foreign French French language in Lebanon English.

Lebanese politics President Prime Minister List of political parties in Lebanon National Pact Lebanese nationalism Phoenicianism Coat of arms of Lebanon Flag of Lebanon. PhoeniciaCanaanand Phoenicia under Assyrian rule. History of Lebanon under Arab rule. French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon and Greater Lebanon.

Black dashed line shows the borders of the — Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate. The first map, drawn by the French inwas used as a template for the borders of Greater Lebanon.

Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon and Syrian occupation of Lebanon. Lebanon portal International relations portal. Inventory of Stone-Age sites in Lebanon, p. Wescombe of the javelin found at Beirut VI. Retrieved 21 July New insights from the Levant". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. An Upper Palaeolithic shell scraper from Ksar Akil Lebanon. Journal of Archaeological Science 38 2: New insights from the Levant, Edited by Henry C.

Retrieved 25 December Lebanon Country Study from the Library of Congress Country Studies project. According to the Maronite argument, this 'Greater Lebanon' had always had a special social and historical character, different from that of its surroundings, which made it necessary and indeed imperative for France to help establish it as an independent state. While France had strong sympathies for the Maronites, the French government did not support their demands without reserve.

In Mount Lebanon, the Maronites had formed a clear majority of the population. In a 'Greater Lebanon', they were bound to be outnumbered by the Muslims of the coastal towns and their hinterlands, and by those of the Bekaa valley; and all the Christian communities together, in a 'Greater Lebanon', could at best amount to a bare majority.

The Maronites, however, were insistent in their demands. Their secular and clerical leaders had pressed for them during the war years among the Allied powers, not excluding the United States. From the Holy Mountain: A Journey Among the Christians of the Middle East. Vintage Books Random House. Reprint possibly with different page numbers. The power in Lebanon". Retrieved April 2, Lebanese presidential crisis boils over". Escalates 'Hands-Off-Lebanon' Pressure on Syria".

Saudi ruler demands rapid Syrian withdrawal". Opposition offers subtle salute to Hizbullah". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 August Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 17 January Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 19 October Archived from the original on 4 December Retrieved 9 May Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 12 January Hizbullah Drills Takeover of Lebanon". Middle East Media Research Institute. Retrieved 14 February This audio file was created from a revision of the " History of Lebanon " article datedand does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.

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