Winnicott was trained by Melanie Klein but became increasingly independent in his thinking over the course of his career, ultimately contributing original ideas which emphasised the importance of play in psychological development. By "playing," he meant not only the ways that children of all ages play, but also the way adults "play" through making art, or engaging in sports, hobbies, humour, meaningful conversation, et cetera. Donald Winnicott 's biography and life story. Donald Woods Winnicott (7 April –28 January ) was an English paediatrician and psychoanalyst who was especially. Donald Woods Winnicott was a pediatrician and psychoanalyst. He coined the term holding environment, which is developed between a client and therapist. Short Francis Scott Key uncredited. The Untold Story of Clare and Donald Winnicott:
He was a leading member of the British Independent Group of the British Donalv SocietyPresident of odnald British Psychoanalytical Society twice — and —and a close associate of Marion Milner. He wrote several books, including Playing and Reality and over papers. Winnicott was born in PlymouthDevon, to Sir John Frederick Winnicotta merchant who was knighted in after serving twice as mayor of Plymouth,  and his wife, Elizabeth Martha Woods Winnicott.
The family was wu den-yih biography and ostensibly happy, but behind the veneer, Winnicott saw himself as oppressed by his mother, who tended toward donald woods winnicott biography, as well as by his two sisters and his nanny.
Winnicott described himself as a disturbed adolescent, reacting against his own self-restraining "goodness" acquired from trying to assuage the dark moods of his mother. He first thought of studying medicine while at The Leys Schoola boarding school in Cambridgewhen he fractured his clavicle and recorded in his diary that he wished he could treat himself.
He began pre-clinical studies at Jesus College, Cambridge wnnicott but, with the onset winnixott World War Ihis studies were interrupted when he was made a medical trainee at the temporary hospital in Cambridge.
Inhe joined the Royal Navy as a medical officer on the destroyer HMS Lucifer. Later that year, he began studies in clinical medicine at St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College in London. During this time, he learned from his mentor the art of listening carefully when taking medical histories from patients, a skill that he would later identify as foundational to his practice as a psychoanalyst.
Winnicott completed his medical studies inand inthe same year as his first marriage to the artist Alice Buxton Winnicott born Taylor. She was a potter and they married on 7 July in St Mary's Donalx, Frensham. Alice had "severe psychological difficulties" and Winnicott arranged for her, and his own therapy, to address the difficulties this created. In he began a ten-year psychoanalysis with James Stracheyand in he began training as an analytic candidate. Strachey discussed Winnicott's case, unethically with his wife, Alix Strachey.
Strachey reported that Winnicott's sex life was damaged by erectile problems and winnictot donald woods winnicott biography of women's genitals. Winnicott rose to prominence just as the followers of Anna Freud were battling those of Melanie Klein for the right to be called Sigmund Freud 's true intellectual heirs. Out of the Controversial discussions during World War IIa compromise was established with three more-or-less amicable groups of the psychoanalytic movement: Winnicott was trained by Melanie Klein wknnicott became increasingly independent in his thinking over the course of his career, ultimately contributing donald woods winnicott biography ideas which emphasised the importance of play in psychological development.
During the Second World War, Winnicott served as consultant psychiatrist to the evacuee programme. During the war he met and worked with Clare Brittona psychiatric social worker who became his colleague in treating children displaced from their homes by wartime evacuation.
Winnicott was lecturing after the war and Janet Quigley and Isa Benzie of the BBC asked him to give over sixty talks on the radio between and His first series of talks in was titled "Happy Children", Quigley offered him total control over the content of his talks but this soon became more consultative as Quigley advised him on the correct pitch. Winnicott divorced his first wife in and, in the same year, married Clare Britton — After the war he also saw patients in his private practice.
Among contemporaries influenced by Winnicott was R. Laingwho wrote to Winnicott biorgaphy acknowledging his donald woods winnicott biography. Except for one book published winnicotf Clinical Notes wooes Disorders of Childhoodall of Winnicott's books were published afterincluding The Ordinary Devoted Mother and Her BabyThe Child and the FamilyPlaying and Realityand Holding and Interpretation: Fragment of an Analysis Winnicott died in donald woods winnicott biography the last of a series of donald woods winnicott biography attacks and was cremated in London.
Clare Winnicott oversaw wooods posthumous publication of several of his works. Out of Winnicott's paediatric work with children and their mothers developed his influential concept of the "holding environment". Winnicott considered that the "mother's technique of holding, of bathing, of feeding, everything she did for the baby, added up to the child's first idea of the mother", as well as fostering the ability to experience the body as the place wherein one securely lives. His theoretical writings emphasised empathyimaginationand, in the words of philosopher Martha Nussbaumwho has been a proponent of ronald work, "the highly particular transactions that constitute love between two imperfect people.
Connected to the concept of holding is what Winnicott called the anti-social tendency, something which he argued "may be found in a normal individual, or in one that is donald woods winnicott biography or psychotic".
In contrast to the emphasis in orthodox psychoanalysis upon generating insight into unconscious processes, Winnicott considered that playing was the key to emotional and psychological well-being.
By "playing," he meant not only the ways that children of all ages play, but also the way adults "play" through making art, or engaging in sports, hobbies, humour, meaningful conversation, et cetera. At any age, he saw play as crucial to the development of authentic selfhood, because when people play they feel real, spontaneous and alive, and keenly interested in what they're vonald He thought that insight in psychoanalysis was helpful when it came to the patient as a playful experience of creative, genuine discovery; dangerous when patients were pressured to comply with their analyst's authoritative interpretations, thus potentially merely reinforcing a patient's false self.
Winnicott believed that it was only in playing that people are entirely their true selves, so it followed that for psychoanalysis to be effective, it needed to serve as a mode of playing.
Two of the techniques whereby Winnicott used play in his work with children were the squiggle game and the spatula game. The second, more famous instance involved Winnicott placing a spatula tongue depressor within the child's reach for him to play with.
Many of Winnicott's writings show his efforts to understand what helps people to be able to play, and on the other hand what blocks some people from playing. Babies can be playful when they're cared for by people who respond to them warmly and biograph, like a mother who smiles and says, "Peek-a-boo! If the never responded playfully, sooner or later the baby would stop trying to elicit play from her.
Indeed, Winnicott came to consider that donxld takes place in the potential space between the baby and the mother-figure Playing can also be seen in the use of a transitional objectWinnicott's term for an object, such as a teddy bear, that has a quality for a small child of being both real and made-up at the same time.
Winnicott pointed out that no one demands that a toddler explain whether his Binky is a "real bear" or a creation of the child's own imagination, and went on to argue that it's very important that the child is allowed to experience the Binky as being bioyraphy an undefined, "transitional" status donald woods winnicott biography the child's imagination and the real world outside the child. In health, the child learns to bring his or her spontaneous, real self into play with others; in a false self disorder, the child has found it unsafe or donald woods winnicott biography to do so, and instead feels compelled to hide the true self from other people, and pretend to be whatever they want instead.
Playing for Winnicott ultimately extended all the biograaphy up from earliest childhood experience to what he called "the donalds woods winnicott biography sinnicott politics and economics and philosophy and culture Winnicott wrote that "a word like self For example, where other psychoanalysts used the Freudian terminology of juan nakpil biography wikipedia and id to describe different functions of a person's psychology, Winnicott at times used "self" to refer to both.
For Winincott, the self is a very important part of mental and emotional well-being which plays a vital role in creativity. He thought that people were born without a clearly developed self and had to "search" for an authentic sense of self as they grew. This experience of aliveness is what allows people to be genuinely close to others, and to be creative.
Winnicott thought odnald the biograhpy Self" begins to develop in infancy, in the relationship between the baby and its primary caretaker Winnicott typically refers to this person as "the mother". One of the ways the mother helps the baby develop an authentic self is by responding in a welcoming and reassuring way to the baby's spontaneous feelings, expressions, and initiatives.
In this way the baby develops a confidence that nothing bad happens when she expresses what she feels, so her feelings don't seem dangerous or problematic to her, and she doesn't have to put undue attention into controlling or avoiding them. She also gains a sense that she is real, that she exists and her feelings and actions have meaning. Winnicott thought that one of the developmental hurdles for an infant to get past is the risk of being traumatised by having to be too aware too soon of how donald woods winnicott biography and helpless she really is.
A baby who is too aware of real-world dangers will be too anxious to learn optimally. A good-enough parent is well enough attuned and responsive to protect the baby with an illusion of omnipotenceor being all-powerful.
For example, a well-cared-for baby usually doesn't feel hungry for very long before being fed. Winnicott thought the parents' quick response of feeding the baby donalds woods winnicott biography the baby a sense that whenever she's hungry, food appears as if by magic, as if the baby herself makes food appear just by being hungry. To feel this powerful, Winnicott thought, allowed a baby to feel confident, calm and curious, and able to learn without having to invest a lot of energy into defences.
In Winnicott's writing, the "False Self" is a defence, a kind of mask of donald woods winnicott biography that complies with others' expectations.
Winnicott thought that in health, a False Self was what allowed one to present a "polite and mannered attitude"  in public. But he saw more dknald emotional problems in patients who seemed unable to feel spontaneous, alive or real to themselves anywhere, in any part of their lives, yet managed to put on a successful "show of being real. Winnicott donald woods winnicott biography that this more extreme kind of False Self began to develop in infancy, as a defence against an environment that felt unsafe or overwhelming because of a lack of reasonably attuned caregiving.
He thought that donalds woods winnicott biography did not need to be perfectly attuned, but just "ordinarily devoted" or "good enough" to protect the baby from often experiencing overwhelming extremes of discomfort and distress, emotional or physical.
But babies who lack this kind of external protection, Winnicott thought, had to do their with their own crude defences. One of the main defences Winnicott thought a baby could resort to was what he called "compliance", or behaviour motivated by a desire to please others rather than spontaneously express one's own feelings and ideas.
For example, if a baby's caregiver was severely depressed, the baby would anxiously sense a lack owods responsiveness, would not be able to enjoy an illusion of omnipotence, and might instead focus his energies and attentions on finding ways to get a positive response from the distracted and unhappy caregiver by being a "good baby". The "False Self" is a defence of constantly seeking to anticipate others' demands and complying with them, as a way of protecting the "True Self" from a world that is felt to be unsafe.
Winnicott thought that the "False Self" developed through a process of introjectiona concept developed early on by Freud in or internalising one's experience of others. But even with the appearance of success, and of social gains, he would feel unreal and lack the sense of really being alive or happy.
The division of the True and False self roughly develops from Freud's notion of the Superego which compels the Ego to modify and inhibit libidinal Id impulses, possibly leading to excessive repression but certainly altering the way the environment is perceived and responded wiinnicott.
However it is not a close equation as the Id, Ego and Superego are complex and dynamic inter-related systems that do not fit well into such a dichotomy. The theory donalr closely resembles Carl Rogers simplified notions of the Real and Ideal self. According to Winnicott, in every person the extent of division between True and False Self can be placed on a continuum between the healthy and the pathological.
The True Self, which in health gives the person a sense of being alive, real, and creative, will always be in part or in whole hidden; the False Self is a compliant adaptation to the environment, but in health it does not dominate the person's internal life or donald woods winnicott biography him from feeling spontaneous feelings, even if he chooses not to express them.
The healthy False Self feels that it is still being true to the True Self.
It can be compliant to expectations but without feeling that it has betrayed its "True Self. Winnicott's theoretical elusiveness has been linked to boography donalds woods winnicott biography to modify Kleinian views. Winnicott has also been accused of identifying himself in his theoretical stance with an idealised mother,  in the tradition of mother Madonna and child.
Along with Jacques DerridaWinnicott is a fundamental resource for donald woods winnicott biography Bernard Stiegler's What Makes Life Worth Living: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Paediatrician psychiatrist sociologist psychoanalyst. Stages of development holding environment subjective omnipotence objective reality transitional experience good-enough mother Good enough parent true self and false self.
Psychosexual development Psychosocial development Erikson Unconscious Preconscious Consciousness Psychic apparatus Id, ego and super-ego Libido Drive Transference Countertransference Ego defenses Resistance Projection Denial Dreamwork. The Interpretation of Dreams The Psychopathology of Everyday Tony cruz biography Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality Self psychology Lacanian Jungian Object relations Interpersonal Reichian Relational Ego psychology.
Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research.Winnicott and Children
True self and donald woods winnicott biography self. Adam Phillips Capacity to be alone Good enough parent Joseph J. Sandler Reparation Playspace Unthought known Eidolon apparition. Retrieved 18 January American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved 19 March The Encyclopaedia of Plymouth History. Archived from the original on 25 December Retrieved 13 February The Historiography of Dlnald. Smith 12 March Women and Gender in Postwar Europe: From Cold War to European Union.
Winnicott, The Child, the Family, and the Outside World Middlesex p. Winnicott, The Child, the Family, and the Outside World Middlesex pp. Winnicott, Winnicott on the Child Cambridge MA p. An introductory London p. Winnicott, Playing and Reality Penguin p.
Winnicott, Playing and Reality. Studies in the Theory of Emotional Development. Winnicott"Ego distortion in terms of true and false self," in The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment: The Impossible Profession London p.
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Important works The Interpretation of Dreams The Psychopathology of Everyday Life Biotraphy Essays on the Theory of Sexuality Beyond the Pleasure Principle The Ego and the Id Schools of thought Self psychology Lacanian Jungian Object relations Interpersonal Reichian Relational Ego psychology. Training Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis British Psychoanalytic Council British Psychoanalytical Society Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research International Psychoanalytical Association World Association of Psychoanalysis.