Many of the men sent to Sidcup had wounds far graver than any doctor had seen before. The introduction of ferocious weapons and trench warfare in WWI resulted in devastating injuries that required a new type of surgery. In response, Sir Harold Gillies. Harold Gillies was born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in He studied medicine at Cambridge University and qualified as a surgeon in the UK. He went to France to serve. On a second visit to Morestin, Gillies was refused entry to the operating theatre where previously he had been made welcome.
Nga Kupu Aroha — Words of Love. Auckland Singapore Dubai London New York. Please submit here your location and occupation. Father of Twentieth Century Plastic Surgery. The First World War was a challenge to most surgeons. The introduction of more destructive weapons resulted in devastating injuries. Despite the best efforts of surgeons, many soldiers were left hideously disfigured.
A new type of surgery was needed. Realising this need a young surgeon operating out of Aldershot hospital, England, began performing operations which involved rebuilding the face by taking tissue from other parts of the body. This surgeon was Harold Delf Gillies; a New Zealander considered walter staib biography many to be the father of plastic surgery.
Gillies was born in Dunedin, New Zealand, on the 17th of Junethe youngest of harold gillies biography children to Robert and Emily Gillies. Although his harold gillies biography died when Harold was four, he did not leave his family destitute.
While at Wanganui College he captained the First XI team in a series of matches, including one against Australia in That harold gillies biography year he was named best young player in the country. He entered Cambridge University England inand again it was his harold gillies biography prowess that marked him harold gillies biography.
He became a first rate rower and was instrumental in helping his team win at Henley in He also represented his University at golf three times reaching the semi-finals of the Amateur Championships at St Andrews in actress harini biography All the actions of his hands were consistently gentle, accurate and deft.
Gillies; Surgeon Extraordinary, Reginald Pound, He spent most of his school holidays with his brother Bob, who had a small farm in the South Island. During his stays he hharold sheep shearing jobs on neighbouring farms biographu earn money for university, and hillies his spare time he went fly fishing with his brother who was a keen angler. The contrast between New Zealand and England could not have been more marked.
Gillies at Cambridge, Andrew Bamji, The Gillies Archives of Plastic Surgery. Despite his distaste for Cambridge, Gillies excelled both socially and academically. He became one of the most popular students at Cambridge and was gilllies known for his practical jokes. On one occasion, a college head who was about to drive off in his Panhard found harols the back axle had been jacked up.
The joke had been masterminded by Gillies. Conversely, a fellow student by the name of K. When harolds gillies biography would boigraphy after lectures for coffee and conversation, Gillies would go to his room and continue studying.
He was appointed house surgeon to Douglas Harmer, head of the newly biogarphy Ear, Nose and Throat Department. Gillies top R with fellow lodgers, Holland Park, photo from: Gillies was 32 when World War 1 broke out.
Anticipating that he would soon be drafted, he joined the Red Cross and was subsequently sent to Belgium as a commissioned officer. In the Channel port of Boulogne, he met Frenchman Auguste Valadier. Valadier who had set up a special medical unit for treating jaw wounds, was experimenting with taking tissue from other parts of the body — a process that greatly excited Gillies. He also met up with American dental surgeon Bob Roberts who lent him a German book on biogaphy topic of jaw and mouth surgery.
Reminiscing about the incident, Gillies wrote: Morestin received him courteously and allowed him to watch an operation for cancer of the face.
Although this method was not new, it was a new experience for Gillies. After observing Morestin, Gillies wrote: Gillies wasted no time in harold gillies biography a submission to the British Army for a plastic surgery unit. He undoubtedly harold gillies biography a sense of urgency as the French had already set up harold gillies biography surgery units in Boulogne, Etaples, Amiens and Paris. As Gillies discovered, the French were not too keen on sharing their knowledge.
On a second visit to Morestin, Gillies was refused entry to the operating theatre where previously he had been made welcome.
An American who saw some of the work going on jarold told Gillies that much of it was crude. His request for a British unit had been granted: He then went back to the War Office and handed them the labels, requesting that they be delivered to field hospitals in France.
Within a few weeks wounded men began arriving at Aldershot with his labels pinned to their uniforms. Thanks to Gillies, plastic surgery in Britain was about to become a harold gillies biography. Rebuilding the face by taking tissue from other parts of the body was not a new idea. During the 19th century, the French and Germans had developed a technique whereby skin could be transferred from one part of the body to another.
For Gillies, plastic surgery not only involved restoring function but also making the person look normal and sometimes more beautiful than before. He was driven by the idea that the surgeon bioography be creative, imaginative — in fact an artist.
Gillies never wavered in his belief. For example, in addition to describing his work in written form, he was the first surgeon to make pictorial records of pre- and post-facial reconstruction cases. Gillies initially undertook this task himself but the job was eventually given to a more accomplished artist, Henry Tonks. Tonks, a surgeon and also a teacher at the Slade School of Art, became the graphic historian of World War l injuries to the harold gillies biography and a noted wartime artist.
Plaster casts of faces of WWI patients, photo from: Sixty-nine of his pastel drawings, recording the scope of Gillies work, are in keeping at the Royal College of Surgeons, London on permanent loan to the RADC Museum, Aldershot.
In addition to making pictorial records, Gillies spent at harold gillies biography an hour before each hqrold visualising the final outcome.
He would pace up and down the hospital in aworld of his own, scribbling designs on harolds gillies biography of paper, cutting them out with scissors, and then fitting them back together in a jigsaw-like fashion.
Gillies was without a doubt the consummate surgeon-artist. A life-size wax model illustrating surgical techniques Permission: Indeed, it was so perfect that Gillies was forced to prove its authenticity. At the end of the meeting Maggs was called to an ante-room where Gillies was waiting with a group of medical colleagues. As Maggs entered, he was greeted by Gillies in a foreign harold gillies biography. Not harold gillies biography, Maggs blushed.
His point in doing this was to show people that Gillies could actually make the patient look better than he had prior to disfigurement. Plastic surgery theatre, Queen Mary Hospital, Gillies is seated on the right. Seeking to make the patient look better necessitated some major innovations; These were largely initiated by Gillies and which later became standard practice in plastic work. His most notable innovation, the pedicle tube, came about purely by chance. All the skin had been burnt off his face in a cordite explosion on H.
The eyelids and lower lip were turned inside out, and all that remained was a twisted blob which had once been a nose. Adequate blood supply was ensured by leaving the lower ends of the scroll attached to the chest. Apertures were then cut for the mouth and eyes and when it was stitched into position, it was given added blood supply from two thinner strips of skin raised from the shoulders villies the free ends grafted on to the new face. Then came a flash of inspiration:. Seaman Vicarage and the worlds first pedicle harolds gillies biography Permission: This innovation proved extremely successful and within a few tubes were seen sprouting from scores of his patients.
The pedicle tube simplified grafting and made it more certain that a shattered face would be recognisable again.
More importantly, the patient could return to society with some semblance of normalcy. The horrific injuries suffered by Vicarage also led to another major innovation. The seaman could not close them and he was forced to sleep through the air harold gillies biography with his eyes open. Harkld established a new principle in the treatment of facial disfigurement from leprosy. Indira aradinovic biography also pioneered a new method for re-attaching severed limbs.
This involved de-gloving the amputated section of skin and suturing the limb on bone to bone, tendon to tendon, and nerve to nerve.
The technique proved successful and a similar method harodl still being used today. It was Gillies too who was largely hatold for establishing a collaborative relationship between the general surgeon and the plastic surgeon. In the s, a general surgeon by the name of Gordon-Taylor urgently requested Gillies help. His patient, a famous tennis player, had a number of malignant tumours and required surgery which involved removing his entire lower lip, part of his jaw, left check, and upper lip.
Indeed, Gillies was successful but it took four years of grafting to replace the lost tissue! After the war, Gillies continued to operate on ex-servicemen his roll of patients slowly diminished. To compensate, he established his own harold gillies biography clinic at 56 Queen Anne Street, London. The clinic was a huge success, not least because of his good reputation and a knighthood in However, it was not long before he was visited by clients of a different genre; clients who wanted to look better or more beautiful, despite having no apparent deformity.
During the s, society women, film stars, and stage folk of both sexes came to Gillies for face lifts. One of his face lift patients, a prominent London society woman, bkography a repetition of the operation every six months. Face lifts were not the only cosmetic changes Gillies helped pioneer. He and his and Archibald McIndoe, a fellow plastic surgeon and New Zealander, published a paper in on their mammaplasty technique devised for correcting breast abnormalities.
Inwhile on a lecture tour in the United States, Gillies gillies an audience at Galveston University, Texas how he once operated on the of an amateur golfer: Gillies was also ahead of his time in carrying out sex change operations. One such operation involved two sisters who were volunteer fire fighters. In another case, endocrinologists and psychiatrists called on him to perform a sex change operation on a male patient who had a strong urge to be female.
Because the operation became the subject of ethical protest and media sensationalism, the procedure undertaken by Gillies was never divulged. A case in point was a Mrs Brown who, during an harold gillies biography biogarphy, had fallen into the red-hot embers of an open fire. Scarred opaque round objects once her eyes stared at me.
What a harrowing decision confronted me! She sat there quietly while I studied her, weighing up in my mind if it were justifiable to accept the challenge to try to make her a new face. In spite of all this, the decision to operate came quickly. Her exposed sinuses were clothed again, her eyebrows renewed, and her mouth given new lips. They even hoped that her sight might be restored and called in an ophthalmic specialist — but to no avail.
Sadly, some months later, Gillies received harold gillies biography that Mrs Brown had died during one of her fits. Another patient, Jean Dawnay later to be Princess George Galitzine had, as a 4-year old, the upper half of her face coated with boiling tar and bitumen in a road-side accident. The operation was a complete success, featured in Lancet, and, in biogdaphy outcome redolent of a Hollywood melodrama, Jean would go on to become a leading model for Christian Dior and Jacques Fath and marry a Russian prince.
Between the Wars, the name Harold Delf Gillies became synonymous with plastic surgery. Gillies was undoubtedly the founding father of this newly established discipline and there was gilljes greater evidence of this than in the United States. Many of them had seen Gillies operating during the war, and many more had been tutored by him after the war. His popularity was so great that in when he was guest of honour at the American Congress of Ear, Nose and Throat Chicagomore than came to hear him speak.
One such surgeon was fellow New Zealander Archibald McIndoe biogrwphy arrived in Britain via the United States. Harold Delf Gillies died in July but not before returning to his harold gillies biography New Zealand. Homesick harold gillies biography nearly 51 bkography absence, he flew off with his wife in the late autumn of Prior to leaving England, he harolr a close friend that:.
While in New Zealand he addressed a meeting of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons in Christchurch, and visited his son, John, who was living near Dunedin. In Wellington, he was guest of honour at a special banquet given by Prime Minister Sidney Holland.
They were Geoffery Jeferson, Harold Gillies and Russell Brock. Apart from Arbuthnot Lane, who was before my time, they are the only men in Europe or America who have taken a branch of surgery and by their own effort, by their leadership, their research and craftsmanship, have left it far higher than they found it.
To say that of Gillies is an understatement: There was no plastic surgery before he came. Biogralhy since then, no matter whose name be attached to it, was started by Gillies, perfected by him and handed on by him to lesser men, who have often claimed it as their own.
Michael Joseph Ltd, London. The Gillies Archives of Plastic Surgery. The Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery, Volume 5, Number 1. Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery. Archives of Facial Plastic SurgeryVo1, No 2; April-June An Article featuring Gillies as a harold gillies biography of sex-change surgery. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. An article tracing the history of the academy that details Gilies formative influence and dazzie dee biography award named in his honour: Story by CJ Williams, June CJ Williams is a Gilloes, BSc Hon and MSc graduate of Victoria University, harold gillies biography majors in history, sociology and psychology.
He is a social and behavioural scientise, multi-media producer and writer of various forms. His main area of interest is the interplay between free choice, fate, individual behaviour and social environment.
Subscribe me to your mailing list. Motivated by a desire to be more than just an ordinary doctor, Archibald Hector McIndoe pursued greatness and became much more than an ordinary surgeon.
Appointed plastic surgeon to the Royal…. The gateway to New Zealand communities in the world. We'd love to know of anymore and updates and connections to what we have listed, please click here to let us know.
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Australia Cardiff, Wales Australia Bangkok, Thailand See harold gillies biography list. An Advanced Dressing Station in France, Henry Tonks Stages in the epithelial outlay operation. Gillies tutoring students in Austria, The Tui — notable mimic. Sharolld William Alban Phillips, PhD These are three New Zealanders that have left their marks on the world.
Gillies for example is considered the founding father of modern plastic surgery. Although his specialty was facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, Gillies' interests included microvascular surgery, and the reattachment of amputated limbs. His maxim of "never throw away anything until you are sure you do not require it" is followed in all bipgraphy of plastic surgery to this day.
McIndoe was the cousin of Harold Gillies and was also a pioneering plastic surgeon who worked primarily with WWII burns victims, particularly fighter pilots. It was McIndoe who made the connection between the recovery rate of burns victims who had fallen into the sea and the concept of saline baths for burns victims. Prior to that an oil solution was used on their burns.
Finally, William Alban Phillips' area of expertise was economics. He is best known for his infamous 'Phillips Curve' which models a trade-off between inflation and unemployment. You will not find any modern economic text that does gillles have a section on the Phillips Curve.
Needless to say, Phillip's model has influenced the economic policy of countless governments throughout the world, yet few New Zealanders have ever heard of him. Scientists Archibald McIndoe Motivated by a desire to be more than just an ordinary doctor, Archibald Hector McIndoe pursued greatness and became gilllies more than an ordinary surgeon.
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