Retrieved 22 December Sweden 's contribution to the adult entertainment industry came in the form of the blond-haired, shapely Puma Swede. Born Johanna Jussinniemi on September 13, in. All about King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden. Biography, news, photos and videos. Pauli, Romae, revelatae", Niceae ad Varum et alibi , variis linguis editum.
Southern Sweden is predominantly agriculturalwhile the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in general very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracywith a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholmwhich is also the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister.
Sweden is a unitary statecurrently divided into 21 counties and municipalities. Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages. In the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empirewhich became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century.
Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was inwhen Norway was militarily forced into personal Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs.
Though Sweden was formally neutral through sweden biography world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold WarSweden joined the European Union on 1 Januarybut declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum. It is also a member of the United Nationsthe Nordic CouncilCouncil of Europethe World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. It has the world's eighth-highest per capita income and ranks highly in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of lifehealth, educationprotection of civil libertieseconomic competitiveness, equalityprosperity and human development.
The etymology of Swedesand thus Swedenis generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own",  referring to one's own Germanic tribe. This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using sweden biography technology.
Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes Suiones as a powerful tribe distinguished not merely for their arms and men, but for their powerful fleets with ships that had a prow at each end longships. Which kings kuningaz ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC.
As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come sweden biography to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts, mainly of sweden biography names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages.
In the 6th century Jordanes names two tribes living in Scandzasweden biography of which are now considered to be synonymous with the Swedes: Jordanes describes the Suetidi and Dani as being of the same stock and the tallest of people. He later mentions other Scandinavian tribes as being of a same stature. The Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson also wrote that the Swedish king Adils Eadgils had the finest horses of his day. The Swedish Viking Age lasted roughly from the 8th century to the 11th century.
It is believed that Swedish Vikings and Gutar mainly travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countriesRussia, Belarus, Ukraine, the Black Sea and even as far as Baghdad. Their routes passed through the Dnieper south to Constantinopleon which they carried out numerous raids. The Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war, and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the Varangian Guard. The Swedish Vikings, called Rus are believed to be the founding fathers of Kievan Rus'.
The Arab traveller Ibn Fadlan described these Vikings as follows:.
I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy; they wear neither tunics nor caftans, but the men wear a garment which covers one side of the body and leaves a hand free.
Each man has an axe, a sword, and a knife, and keeps each by him at all times. The swords are broad and grooved, sweden biography, of Frankish sort. The actions of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece runestones and the Varangian runestones.
There was also considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commemorated on stones such as the England runestones. The last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serklandthe region south-east of the Caspian Sea.
Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar runestonesnone of which mentions any survivor. What happened to the crew is unknown, but it is believed that they died of sickness. Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that into antiquity. It is not known how long they existed: The island of Gotland was disputed by other than Swedes, at this time Danish, Hanseatic, and Gotland-domestic.
The south-west parts of the Scandinavian peninsula consisted of sweden biography Danish provinces ScaniaBlekinge and Halland. But there were Swedish settlements in south-west Finland, and along the southern coastline of Norrland. During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in Danish province Scania and Paviken on Gotland, were flourishing centres of trade, but they were not parts of the early Swedish Kingdom. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market dating from — AD have been found in Ystad.
Between andtrade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, and according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of this era hoarded more silver than the rest of the population of Scandinavia combined. Ansgar is usually credited with introducing Christianity inbut the new religion did not begin to fully replace paganism until the 12th century.
During the 11th century, Christianity became the most prevalent religion, and from Sweden is counted as a Christian nation. The period between and was characterised by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms. In the years — according to the legend of Eric IX and the Eric Chronicles and Swedish kings made firstsecond and third crusade to pagan Finland against FinnsTavastians and Karelians and started conflicts with the Rus with who no longer had any connection with Sweden.
Except for the provinces of Scania, Blekinge and Halland, in the south-west of the Scandinavian peninsula which were parts of the Kingdom of Denmark during this time, feudalism never developed in Sweden as it did in the rest of Europe. Slavery also called thralldom was not common in Sweden,  and what slavery there was tended to be driven out of existence by the spread of Christianity, the difficulty in obtaining slaves from the lands east of the Baltic Sea, and by the development of cities before the 16th century.
Former slaves tended to be absorbed into the peasantry, and some became labourers in the towns. Still, Sweden remained a poor and economically backward country in which barter was the means of exchange. For instance, the farmers of the province of Dalsland would transport their butter to the mining districts of Sweden and exchange it there for iron, which they would then take to the coast and trade for fish, which they consumed, while the iron would be shipped abroad.
In the middle of the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death. And the population at same territory as existed by did not reach the same numbers again until the beginning of the 19th century. One third of the population died during — During this period, the Swedish cities began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the Hanseatic Leagueactive especially at Visby.
InSweden and Norway were united under King Magnus Eriksson, and in Queen Margaret I of Denmark effected the personal sweden biography of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark through the Kalmar Union. However, Margaret's successors, whose rule was also centred in Denmark, were unable to control the Swedish nobility.
A large number of children inherited the Swedish crown over the course of the kingdom's existence; consequently real power was held for long periods by regents notably those of the Sture family chosen by the Swedish parliament. King Christian II of Denmarkwho asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre in of Swedish nobles in Stockholm. This came to be known as the " Stockholm blood sweden biography " and stirred the Swedish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June now Sweden's national holiday inthey made Gustav Vasa their king.
Shortly afterwards he rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the Protestant Reformation. The Hanseatic League sought civil and commercial privileges from the princes and royalty of the countries and cities along the coasts of the Baltic Sea. Having their own navy, the Hansa were able to sweep the Baltic Sea free of pirates.
They sought agreement to be free of all customs and taxes. The sweden biography exports from Sweden were iron and copper.
However, the Swedes began to resent the monopoly trading position of the Hansa mostly German citizensand to resent the income they felt they lost to the Hansa. Consequently, when Gustav Vasa or Gustav I broke the monopoly power of the Hanseatic League he was regarded as a hero by the Swedish people.
The foundations laid by Gustav would take time to develop. Furthermore, when Sweden did develop, freed itself from the Hanseatic League, and entered its golden era, the fact that the peasantry had traditionally been free meant that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class. During the 17th century Sweden emerged as a European great power. Before the emergence of the Swedish Empire, Sweden was a poor and scarcely populated country on the fringe of European civilisation, with no significant power or reputation.
Sweden rose to prominence on a continental scale during the tenure of king Gustavus Adolphusseizing territories from Russia and Poland—Lithuania in multiple conflicts, including the Thirty Years' War.
During the Thirty Years' War, Sweden conquered approximately half of the Holy Roman states. These German provinces excluded themselves from Swedish power one by leaving Sweden with only a few northern German territories: Swedish PomeraniaBremen-Verden and Wismar.
In the middle of the 17th century Sweden was the third-largest country in Europe by land area, only surpassed by Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the treaty of Roskilde in The Swedes conducted a series of invasions into the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as the Deluge.
After more than half a century of almost constant warfare, the Swedish economy had deteriorated. It became the lifetime task of Charles' son, Charles XIto rebuild the economy and refit the army.
His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden, Charles XIIwas one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet. Sweden's largest threat at this time, Russia, had a larger army but was far behind in sweden biography equipment and training.
After the Battle of Narva inone of the first battles of the Great Northern Warthe Russian army was so severely devastated that Sweden had an open chance to invade Russia. However, Charles did not pursue the Russian army, instead turning against Poland—Lithuania and defeating the Polish king, Augustus IIand his Saxon allies at the Battle of Klissow in This gave Russia time to rebuild and modernise its army.
After the success of invading Poland, Charles decided to make an attempt at invading Russia, but this ended in a decisive Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava in After a long sweden biography exposed to Cossack raids, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great 's scorched-earth techniques and the extremely cold winter ofthe Swedes stood weakened with a shattered morale and were enormously outnumbered against the Russian army at Poltava.
The defeat meant the beginning of the end for the Swedish Empire. In addition, the plague raging in East Central Europe devastated the Swedish dominions and reached Central Sweden in Charles XII attempted to invade Norway inbut he was shot dead at Fredriksten fortress in The Swedes were not militarily defeated at Fredriksten, but the whole structure and organisation of the campaign fell apart with the king's death, and the army withdrew. Forced to cede large areas of land in the Treaty of Nystad inSweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea.
With Sweden's lost influence, Russia emerged as an empire and became one of Europe's dominant nations. As the war finally ended inSweden had lost an estimatedmen,of those from the area of present-day Sweden and 50, from the Finnish part of Sweden. In the 18th century, Sweden did not have enough resources to maintain its territories outside Scandinavia, and most of them were lost, culminating with the loss in of eastern Sweden to Russia, which became the highly autonomous Grand Principality of Finland in Imperial Russia.
In interest of re-establishing Swedish dominance in the Baltic Sea, Sweden allied itself against its traditional ally and benefactor, France, in the Napoleonic Wars. Sweden's role in the Battle of Leipzig gave it the authority to force Denmark—Norway, an ally of France, to cede Norway to the King of Sweden on 14 January in exchange for northern German provinces, at the Treaty of Kiel. The Norwegian attempts to keep their status as a sovereign state were rejected by the Swedish king, Charles XIII.
He launched a military campaign against Norway on 27 Julyending in the Convention of Mosswhich forced Norway into a personal sweden biography with Sweden under the Swedish crown, which lasted until The campaign was the last time Sweden was at war. The Swedish East India CompanyOstindiska Kompanietbegan in The trade continued into the 19th Century, and caused the little town to become Sweden's second city.
Many looked towards America for a better life during this time. It is thought that between rupert vessey biography more than one million Swedes moved to the United States. Despite the slow rate of industrialisation into the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy due to constant innovations and a rapid population growth.
Strong grassroots movements sprung up in Sweden during the latter half of the 19th century trade unions, temperance groups, and independent religious groupscreating a strong foundation of democratic principles. In The Swedish Social Democratic Party was founded. These movements precipitated Sweden's migration into a modern parliamentary democracy, achieved by the time of World War I. As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the 20th century, people gradually moved into cities to work in factories and became involved in socialist unions.
A communist revolution was avoided infollowing the re-introduction of parliamentarismand the country was democratised. As in the first world war, Sweden remained officially neutral during World War IIalthough its neutrality during World War II has been disputed.
However, Sweden supported Norwegian resistance, and in helped rescue Danish Jews from deportation to Nazi concentration camps. The Swedish government also unofficially supported Finland in the Winter War and the Continuation War by allowing volunteers and materiel to be shipped to Finland.
During the last year of the war, Sweden began to play a role in humanitarian efforts, and many refugees, among them thousand Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe, were rescued thanks to the Swedish rescue missions to internment camps and partly because Sweden served as a haven for refugees, primarily from the Nordic countries and the Baltic states.
Sweden was officially a neutral country and remained outside NATO and Warsaw Pact membership during the Cold War, but privately Sweden's leadership had strong ties with the United States and other western governments. Following the war, Sweden took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Europe. During most of the post-war era, the country was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party largely in co-operation with trade unions and industry.
The government actively pursued an internationally competitive manufacturing sector of primarily large corporations. Sweden was one of the founding states of the European Free Trade Area EFTA. During the s the EFTA countries were often referred to as the Outer Sevenas opposed to the Inner Six of the then- European Economic Community EEC. Sweden, like countries around the globe, entered a period of economic decline and upheaval following the oil embargoes of —74 and — Eventually government began to spend over half of the country's gross domestic product.
Sweden GDP per capita ranking declined during this time. A bursting real estate bubble caused by inadequate controls on lending combined with an international recession and a policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis in the early s. The response of the government was to cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms to improve Sweden's competitiveness, among them reducing the welfare state and privatising public services and goods.
Much of the political establishment promoted EU membership, and a referendum passed with Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January In a referendum the Swedish electorate voted against the country joining the Euro currency. In Sweden got its first majority government for decades as the centre-right Alliance defeated the incumbent Social Democrat government.
Following the rapid growth of anti-immigration Sweden Democrats and their entrance to the Riksdag in the Alliance became a minority cabinet. Sweden remains non-aligned militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to extensive co-operation with other European countries in the area of defence technology and defence industry.
Among others, Swedish companies export weapons that were used by the American military in Iraq. Sweden also participated in enforcing a UN mandated no-fly zone over Libya during the Arab Spring.
Sweden held the chair of the European Union from 1 July to 31 December In recent decades Sweden has become a more culturally diverse nation due to significant immigration; in it was estimated that 15 per cent of the population was foreign-born, and an additional 5 per cent of the population were born to two immigrant parents.
The influx of immigrants has brought new social challenges. Violent incidents have periodically occurred   including the Stockholm riots which broke out following the police shooting of an elderly Portuguese immigrant. The Sweden Democrats held the balance of power and voted the government's budget sweden biography in the Riksdag, but due to agreements between the government and the Alliance, the government was able to hang onto power. Situated in Northern Europe, Sweden lies west of the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothniaproviding a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.
To the west is the Scandinavian mountain chain Skandernaa range that separates Sweden from Norway. Finland is located to its north-east. Its border with Norway 1, km long is the longest uninterrupted border within Europe.
Sweden has 25 provinces or landskap landscapesbased on culture, geography and history. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role in people's self-identity. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward.
Most of Sweden has a temperate climatedespite its northern latitudewith largely sweden biography distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The winter in the far south is usually weak and is only manifested through some shorter periods with snow and sub-zero temperatures, autumn may well turn into spring there, without a distinct period of winter.
The country can be divided into sweden biography types of climate: However, Sweden is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the combination of the Gulf Stream   and the general west wind drift, caused by the direction of planet Earth's rotation. Continental west-coasts to which entire Scandinavia belongs, as the westernmost part of the Euraisian continent are notably warmer than continental east-coasts.
This can also be seen by comparing f. And for example, central and southern Sweden has much milder winters than many parts of Russia, Canada, and the northern United States.
North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and it never rises for part of each winter. In the capital, Stockholmdaylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 6 hours in late December. Sweden receives between 1, and 1, hours of sunshine annually.
Temperatures expected in Sweden are heavily influenced by the large Fennoscandian landmass, as well as continental Europe and western Russia, which allows hot or cool inland air to be easily transported to Sweden. That in turn renders most of Sweden's southern areas having warmer summers than almost everywhere in the nearby British Isleseven matching temperatures found along the continental Atlantic coast as far south as in northern Spain. In winter however the same high-pressure systems sometimes puts the entire country far below freezing temperatures.
There is some maritime moderation from the Atlantic which renders the Swedish continental climate less severe than that of nearby Russia. Even though temperature patterns differ between north and south, the summer climate is surprisingly similar all through the entire country in spite of the large latitudal differences. This is due to the south being surrounded by a greater mass of water, with the wider Baltic Sea and the Atlantic air passing over lowland areas from the south-west.
Apart from the ice-free Atlantic bringing marine air into Sweden tempering winters, the mildness is further explained by prevailing low-pressure systems postponing winter, with the long nights often staying above freezing in the south of the country due to the abundant cloud cover. By the time winter finally breaks through, daylight hours rise quickly, ensuring that daytime temperatures soar quickly in spring. With the greater number of clear nights, frosts remain commonplace quite far south as late as April.
The cold winters occur when low-pressure systems are weaker. An example is that the coldest ever month January in Stockholm was also the sunniest January month on record. The relative strength of low and high-pressure systems of marine and continental air also define the highly variable summers. Nights normally remain cool, especially in inland areas.
Transitional seasons are normally quite extensive and the four-season climate applies to most of Sweden's territory, except in Scania where some years do not record a meteorological winter see table below or in the high Lapland mountains where polar microclimates exist. Despite northerly locations, southern and central Sweden may have almost no snow in some winters.
Most of Sweden is located in the rain shadow of the Scandinavian Mountains through Norway and north-west Sweden. The blocking of cool and wet air in summer as well as the greater landmass leads to warm and dry summers far north in the country, with quite warm summers at the Bothnia Bay coast at 65 degrees latitude, which is unheard of elsewhere in the world at such northerly coastlines.
Swedish Meteorological Institute, SMHI's monthly average temperatures of some of their weather stations — for the latest scientific full prefixed thirty-year period — Next will be presented in year The weather stations are sorted from south towards north by their numbers.
Sweden has fundamental laws Swedish: Regeringsformenthe Act of Succession Swedish: Successionsordningenthe Freedom of the Press Act Swedish: The public sector in Sweden is divided into two parts: Kommunallagen passed by the Riksdag. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and King Carl XVI Gustaf is the head of statebut the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral Riksdag with members.
General elections are held every years, on the second Sunday of September. Legislation may be initiated by the Government or by members of the Riksdag. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to a four-year term. The internal workings of the Riksdag is, in addition to the Instrument of Government, regulated by the Riksdag Act Swedish: Regeringen operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister — appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag following an actual vote in the Riksdag before an appointment can be made — and other cabinet ministers Swedish: Most of the State administrative authorities Swedish: A unique feature of Swedish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the pejorative in Swedish political parlance term ministerstyre English: The Judiciary is independent from the Riksdag, Government and other State administrative authorities.
The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Swedish politics sinceafter the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party. Aftermost governments have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only general elections since World War II—,and —have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government.
For over 50 years, Sweden had had parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Riksdag—the Social Democrats, the Moderate Partythe Centre Partythe Liberal People's Party and the Left Party—before the Green Party became the sixth party in the election.
In the election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: The election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in that an eighth party, the Sweden Democratsgained Riksdag seats. In the elections to the European Parliamentparties who have failed to pass the Riksdag threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: In the general election the Moderate Party formed the centre-right Alliance for Sweden bloc and won a majority of the Riksdag seats.
In the general election the Alliance contended against a unified left block consisting of the Social Democrats, the Greens and the Left Party. Nevertheless, neither the Alliance, nor the left block, chose to form a coalition with the Sweden Democrats.
The outcome of the general election resulted in the attainment of more seats by the sweden biography centre-left parties in comparison to the centre-right Alliance for Sweden, with the two blocs receiving and seats respectively.
Election turnout in Sweden has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout Sweden is a unitary state divided into 20 county councils landsting and municipalities kommuner. County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. Health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions are administered by county councils.
Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. The only exception is Gotland Municipality which also has the responsibilities of a county council. Municipal and county council government in Sweden is similar to city commission and cabinet-style council government. Both levels have legislative assemblies municipal councils and county council assemblies of between 31 and members always an uneven number that are elected from party-list proportional representation at the general election which are held every sweden biography years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.
These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional subdivisions of the Church of Sweden and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.
The Swedish government has 21 County Administrative Boards Swedish: Each county administrative boards is led by a County Governor Swedish: The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to when the counties were created by Lord High Chancellor Count Axel Oxenstierna.
The sweden biography responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government. There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and lands, which still retain cultural significance. The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown. In the first case, Svealand was first mentioned as having one single ruler in alexandra wilkis wilson biography year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way.
These events are often described as the consolidation of Swedenalthough substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later. Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden.
Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology. Up until the beginning of the s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends".
This title was used up until The term riksdag was used for the first time in the s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early asin the town of Arboga. Executive power was historically shared between the King and an aristocratic Privy council untilfollowed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the commoner estates of the Riksdag.
As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced infollowed by sweden biography different flavours of constitutional monarchy inandthe latter granting sweden biography civil liberties. In Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every sweden biography years.
In the parliament became unicameral. Legislative power was symbolically shared between the King and the Riksdag until Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag. Sweden was the first country in the world to outlaw corporal punishment of children by their parents parents' right to spank their own children was first removed inand it was explicitly prohibited by law from July Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system.
Some Swedish political figures have become known worldwide, among these are: The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set sweden biography by legislation.
While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts. The Supreme Court of Sweden Swedish: Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent.
The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices Swedish: According to a victimisation survey of 1, residents inSweden has above-average crime rates compared to other EU countries. Sweden has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare.
A mid-November news report announced that sweden biography prisons in Sweden were closed during the year due to a significant drop in the number of inmates. Throughout the 20th century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. Sweden's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war.
Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in During World War II Sweden joined neither the allied nor axis powers. This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods,   especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.
During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence. Ina Swedish DC-3 was shot sweden biography over the Baltic Sea by a Soviet MiG jet fighter. Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. Prime Minister Olof Palme made an official visit to Cuba during the s, during which he denounced Fulgencio Batista 's government and praised contemporary Cuban and Cambodian revolutionaries in a speech.
Beginning in the late s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations.
It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World. On 27 Octobera Whiskey-class submarine U from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country. Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential.
The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. The assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach. Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget. Since Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.
The law is enforced in Sweden by sweden biography government entities. The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The National Task Force is a national SWAT unit within the Police Service. The Swedish Security Service 's responsibilities are counter-espionageanti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.
The armed forces are divided into ArmyAir Force and Navy. Up to the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chiefbut in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.
Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service. All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers.
In the total number of conscripts was 45, By it was to 15, On 1 July Sweden stopped routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness. The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, men. This could be compared with the s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1, men. Swedish units have taken part in peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, Lebanon, Afghanistan and Chad.
Currently, one of the most important tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces has been to form a Swedish-led EU Battle Group to which Norway, Finland, Ireland and Estonia will also contribute. Sweden is the seventh-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens.
Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade. Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration. Trade unions, employers' associations and collective agreements cover a large share of the employees in Sweden.
Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.
In Sweden's income Gini coefficient was the third lowest among developed countries, at 0. However, Sweden's wealth Gini coefficient at 0. Danderydoutside Stockholm, has Sweden's highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0. In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0. In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.
Large organisations, sweden biography in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency. Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early s. Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.
Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona SEKa result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum. According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.
The largest trade flows are with Germany, the United States, Norway, the United Kingdom, Denmark and Finland. Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early s. Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government. In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. Bylegislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding.
Sweden's energy market is largely privatised. The Nordic energy market is one of the first liberalised energy markets in Europe and it is traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe and Nord Pool Spot.
At the same time, the use of biofuelspeat etc. Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh. The oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power. The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Among other things, the accident of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station United States prompted the Riksdag to ban new nuclear plants.
Voters rejected right-hand traffic inbut after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place inknown in Swedish as Dagen H. The Stockholm metro is the only subway system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations. The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, many operators are still owned by state. The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains.
For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves. Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.
Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to sweden biography neighbouring countries.
The ferry ports of Karlskrona and Karlshamn in southeastern Sweden serve GdyniaPoland, and KlaipedaLithuania. Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over sweden biography departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every sweden biography minutes.
Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, sweden biography connecting Gotland with the sweden biography. Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world.
According to a OECD report, the country had the second-highest public social spending as a percentage of its GDP after France During this period Sweden's economic growth was also one of the highest in the industrial world. A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth.
The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.
However, from the s and onwards Sweden's GDP growth fell behind other industrialised countries and the country's per capita ranking fell from 4th to 14th place in a few decades. Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back, and according to the OECD and McKinseySweden has recently been relatively quick to adopt economic liberalisation policies, such as deregulation, compared to countries such as France. Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD.
This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services. According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer. Sweden is starting to look like the USA.
Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls. In Junethe Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls.
As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened. Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.
Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update]total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries. Spending on transfers is also high. In and 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: The employment tendency was very strong in The positive trend continued during the first half ofbut the rate of increase slackened.
According to Statistics Swedenthe unemployment rate in June was at 8. In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from sweden biography Europe.
Inthe Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carl Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes.
Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Losecan ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the s and was developed by AstraZeneca.
A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors. Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update]according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden.
Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3. As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.
Inthe decisions to construct Sweden's two largest scientific installations, the synchrotron radiation facility MAX IV and the European Spallation Source, were taken. The European Spallation Sourcecosting some SEK 14 billion to construct,  will be operational in and will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today's existing neutron source installations. Both facilities have strong implications on material research.
The total resident population of Sweden was 10, on 28 February Also the western coast is fairly well populated even outside Scania and Greater Gothenburg. The mountains and most of the coast remotely areas are next to unpopulated. Between andapproximately 1. There are more than 4. There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 1, The official language of Sweden is Swedish,   a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegianbut differing in pronunciation and orthography.
Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than the Norwegians. The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scaniathe southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.
The actual number is unknown, since no official statistics are kept. Along with Finnish, sweden biography other minority languages are also recognised: Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 Julywhen a new language law was implemented. In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.
English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early asoxford dictionary of national biography download has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.
Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the sweden biography continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark. With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities into the late 19th century.
After the Protestant Reformation in the s, a change led by Martin Luther 's Swedish associate Olaus Petrithe authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread.
Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod ofand it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxysmall groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmenthe Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.
With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicismwere allowed to live and work freely in the country. However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churchesand, towards the end of the century, secularismleading many to distance themselves from church rituals. Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law ofbut only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.
The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law on Freedom of religion in Inthe Church of Sweden was disestablished. Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of Sinceonly children that are christened become members.
SomeSwedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higherand immigration caused that there are robbie greenidge biography some 92, Roman Catholics andEastern Orthodox Christians living in Sweden. The first Muslim congregation was established inwhen a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland.
Islam's presence in Sweden remained marginal until the s, when Sweden started to receive migrants from the Balkans and Turkey. Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population toHowever, only aboutare members of a congregation and of these approximately 25, actively practise Islam in the sense that they pray sweden biography times a day and attend Friday prayer.
According to the Eurobarometer Poll. Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheistpreferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.
Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top countries with respect to low infant mortality. It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option.
The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients. Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish: Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. In the Programme for International Student Assessment PISAsweden biography, Swedish year-old pupils score close to the OECD average.
The school system is largely financed by taxes. The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally  by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged. There are a number of different universities and colleges in Swedenthe oldest and largest of which are situated in UppsalaLundGothenburg and Stockholm.
Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Swedenand in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobilitycrime, and voting behaviour.
There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity. This is, however, not to be confused with the migrants' national backgroundswhich are recorded.
In addition,persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and anotherpersons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.
According to Eurostatinthere were 1. Of these, 9. Inimmigration reached its highest level since records began, withpeople emigrating to Sweden. The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: In total sweden biography Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes.
The nation's most well-known artists are painters such as Carl Larsson and Anders Zornand the sculptors Tobias Sergel and Carl Milles. In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema. Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.
The early Swedish film I Am Curious Yellow reflected a liberal view of sexuality, including scenes of love making that caught international attention, and introduced the concept of the "Swedish sin" that had been introduced earlier in the US with Ingmar Bergman's Summer with Monika. The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.
Since 1 MaySweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for sweden biography same-sex and opposite-sex couples, sweden biography. Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread.
Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom. Sweden has a rich musical tradition, ranging from mediaeval folk ballads to hip hop music. The music of the pre-Christian Norse has been lost to history, although historical re-creations have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpetsimple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums.
It is possible that the Viking musical legacy lives on in some of the old Swedish folk music. Sweden has a significant folk-music scene, in the traditional style as well as more modern interpretations which often mix in elements of rock and jazz. There is also Sami music, called the joikwhich is actually a type of chant which is part of the traditional Saami animistic spirituality but has gained recognition in the international world of folk music.
Sweden's most classic and notable composers includes Carl Michael Bellman and Franz Berwald. Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition, deriving in part from the cultural importance of Swedish folk songs. In fact, out of a population of 9. Inwith over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.
With ABBA, Sweden entered into a new era, in which Swedish pop music gained international prominence. There have been many other internationally successful bands since, such as RoxetteAce of BaseEuropeA-teensThe CardigansRobynThe Hives and Soundtrack of Our Livesto name some of the biggest. Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal bands, including BathoryOpethAmon Amarth and Ghost. The renowned neo-classical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden.
Starting in the s, Denniz Pop 's Cheiron Studios became an international hit factory, with his disciple Max Martin responsible for Britney Spears ' breakthrough songs and for shaping the whole boy-band boom at the turn of the millennium with global hits for groups like the Backstreet Boys and 'N Sync.
In the mids, Martin came back with a more rock-tinged sweden biography and produced major hits with artists such as Kelly ClarksonPink and Katy Perry. Another producer worth mentioning is RedOnea Moroccan-Swede who is the creator of a slew of hits for Lady Gaga. Sweden is one of the most successful competing nations at the Eurovision Song Contestwith a total of six victories in the contest, andright behind Ireland who have wins. In Eurovision Song Contest each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio; however, no restriction on the nationality of the songwriter and the artist exists which has resulted in countries being represented by songwriters and artist who are not nationals of that country.
In recent years Swedish songwriters have been involved in the writing entirely or partly of entries from sweden biography countries including Sweden.
For instance, in the edition of Eurovision Song Contest, Swedish songwriters and producers featured in 10 out of the 42 songs that qualified for the contest; inthe numbers were 7 songs out of the 39 songs in the contest; in7 songs out of 37 songs in the contest; in8 songs out of 40 songs in the contest; in12 songs out of 42 songs in the contest.
Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences. The Centre for Swedish Folk Music and Jazz Research has published an overview of jazz in Sweden by Lars Westin.
Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side. As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. Cathedrals in other parts of Sweden were also built as seats of Sweden's bishops. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th. Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.
Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the Gripsholm Castle and the one at Vadstena. In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace. The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programmeoffering affordable living in large apartment complexes.
Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal.
The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro Internationalwas founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local liberal.
The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden, . Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.
Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started.
The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available. The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in It was followed by Kanal 5 in then known as Nordic Channel and TV4 in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.
TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts inbecoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country. Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Agesduring which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.
Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.
With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisationthe 17th century saw sweden biography notable authors develop the Swedish language further. Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th centurywho was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th centurythe first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th centurythe first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th centurya socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.
In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou. The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi LongstockingEmiland others.
Inthe second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larssonwhose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.
Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidaysSweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.
Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. The Samione of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on 6 February and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July. Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries DenmarkNorway and Finlandwas traditionally simple.
Fish particularly herringmeat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverageand the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance. The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into sweden biography contemporary variants.
Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, others perhaps a century or less, are still a very important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.
Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. A number of Swedish people have found success in Hollywood, including Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo and Max von Sydow. Lindeberg operating as JLAcneLindexOdd MollyCheap MondayGantWESCFilippa Kand Nakkna within its borders. These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.
Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities. The two sweden biography spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners who are mostly women. Thereafter, golf, track and fieldand the team sports of handballfloorballbasketball and bandy are the most popular. The Swedish national men's ice hockey team, affectionately known as Tre Kronor English: Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Swedenis regarded as one of the best in the world.
The team has won the World Championships sweden biography times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and InTre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win sweden biography the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament inand third twice, in and Sweden hosted the Summer OlympicsEquestrian at the Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup in Other big sports events include the UEFA EuroFIFA Women's World CupWorld Championships in AthleticsUEFA Women's Euroand sweden biography championships of ice hockey, curlingathletics, skiingbandy, figure skating and swimming.
Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden.
In The Swedish Poker Federation Svepof has joined The International Federation of Poker IFP. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation. For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation. Du gamla, Du fria [b] Thou ancient, sweden biography free. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.
Early Swedish historyFoundation of Modern Swedenand Varangians. History of Sweden —Swedish EmpireSwedish overseas coloniesSweden and the Great Northern WarAbsolute Monarchy in SwedenSweden-Finlandand Union between Sweden and Norway.
Modernization of Sweden and Swedish emigration to the United States. Sweden during World War I and Sweden during World War II. History of Sweden —present. Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden. Subdivisions of Sweden and National Areas of Sweden. Foreign relations of Sweden. Swedish Armed Forces and Law enforcement in Sweden. Nordic energy marketNuclear power phase-out in Swedenand Oil phase-out in Sweden.
Nordic model and Social welfare in Sweden. Demographics of Sweden and Swedes. Largest cities or towns in Sweden  Swedish language and Languages of Sweden.
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The many nonbelievers he interviewed, informally and in structured, taped and transcribed sessions, were anything but antireligious, for example. They typically balked at the label "atheist. Though they denied most of the traditional teachings of Christianity, they called themselves Christians, and most were content to remain in the Danish National Church or the Church of Sweden, the traditional national branches of Lutheranism.
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Magocsi, Paul Robert University of Minnesota Press, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sweden Agenda 21 — Natural Resource Aspects — Sweden.
University of Minnesota Press Den offentliga makten in Swedish. Sawyer, Birgit; Sawyer, Peter H. LUM, Lunds universitet med delar, 7: Archived from the original on 31 July Archived from the original on 14 July Yearbook of Housing and Building Statistics PDF.
Statistics SwedenEnergy, Rents and Real Estate Statistics Unit. Social and economic conditions World Criminal Justice Systems: A Survey 7 ed. Partierna och den stora staten: Stockholm, City University Press.
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